Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Semester 7 Syllabus


Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Semester 7 Syllabus

Image and Video Processing
Image Fundamentals
Image acquisition, sampling and quantization, image resolution, basic relationship between pixels, color images, RGB, HSI and other models

Two Dimensional Transforms

Discrete Fourier Transform, Discrete Cosine Transform, KL Transform, and Discrete Wavelet Transform

Image Enhancement
Spatial Domain
Point Processing: Digital Negative, contrast stretching, thresholding, gray level slicing, bit plane slicing, log transform and power law transform.
Neighborhood Processing: Averaging filters, order statistics filters, high pass filters and high boost filters

Frequency Domain: DFT for filtering, Ideal, Gaussian and Butterworth filters for smoothening and sharpening, and Homomorphic filters
Histogram Modeling: Histogram equalization and histogram specification

Image Segmentation and Morphology
Point, line and edge detection, edge linking using Hough transform and graph theoretic approach, thresholding, and region based segmentation.
Dilation, erosion, opening, closing, hit or miss transform, thinning and thickening, and boundary extraction on binary images
Image Restoration:
Degradation model, noise models, estimation of degradation function by modeling, restoration using Weiner filters and Inverse filters
Video Formation, Perception and Representation
Digital Video Sampling, Video Frame classifications, I, P and B frames, Notation, ITU-RBT 601Digital Video formats, Digital video quality measure.
Video Capture and display: Principle of colour video camera, video camera, digital video
Sampling of video Signals: Required sampling rates, sampling in two dimensions and three dimensions, progressive virus interlaced scans
Two Dimensional Motion Estimation
Optical Flow: 2-D motion Vs optical flow, optical flow equations, motion representation, motion estimation criteria, optimization method.
Pixel based motion estimation: Regularization using motion smoothing constraints, using multipoint neighborhood.
Block Matching Algorithms: Exhaustive block matching algorithms, phase correlation method, Binary feature matching.
Multi resolution Motion Estimation: General formulation, Hierarchical blocks matching Algorithms.

Recommended Books:
1. Gonzales and Woods, ?Digital Image Processing?, Pearson Education, India, Third Edition,
2. Anil K.Jain, ?Fundamentals of Image Processing?, Prentice Hall of India, First Edition, 1989.
3. Murat Tekalp, ?Digital Video Processing?, Pearson, 2010.
4. John W. Woods, ?Multidimensional Signal, Image and Video Processing?, Academic Press 2012
5. J.R.Ohm , ?Multimedia Communication Technology”, Springer Publication.
6. A.I.Bovik, ?Handbook on Image and Video Processing”, Academic Press.
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered for final internal assessment. End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining question will be selected from all the modules.
Mobile communication
Fundamentals of Mobile Communication
Introduction to wire1ess communication
Frequency Division Multiple access, Time Division Multiple access, Spread Spectrum Multiple access, Space Division Multiple access, and OFDM
Frequency reuse, channel assignment strategies, handoff strategies, interference and system capacity, trunking and grade of service, improving the capacity of cellular systems. and related design problems

2G Technologies

GSM Network architecture, signaling protocol architecture, identifiers, channels, introduction frame structure, speech coder RPE-LTP, authentication and security, call procedure, handoff procedure, services and features
2.2
GSM evolution in GPRS and EDGE: Architecture and services offered
2.3
IS-95 A& B(CDMA-1): Frequency and channel specifications of forward and reverse CDMA channel, packet and frame formats, mobility and radio resource management
3.0
3G Technology

IMT-2000/UMTS: Network architecture, air Interface specification, forward and reverse channels in W-CDMA and CDMA 2000, spreading and modulation.

Cell search and synchronization, establishing a connection, hand off and power control in 3G system
3GPP LTE
Introduction and system overview
4.2
Frequency bands and spectrum ,network structure, and protocol structure
Frame slots and symbols, modulation, coding, multiple antenna techniques
Logical and Physical Channels: Mapping of data on to logical sub-channels physical layer procedures, establishing a connection, retransmission and reliability, power control.
Emerging Technologies for 4G
4G Introduction and vision
Multi antenna Technologies: MIMO; software defined radio
5.3
Adaptive multiple antenna techniques, radio resource management, QOS requirements
5.4
Overview of 4G research initiatives and developments.

Mobile Radio Propagation
Study of indoor and outdoor propagation models
6.2
Small scale fading and multi-path Small-scale multi-path propagation, parameter of multi-path channels, types of small scale fading, Raleigh and Ricean distribution,

Recommended Books:
1. Theodore S. Rappaport , ?Wireless Communications?, Prentice Hall of India, PTR publication
2. Andreas Molisch , ?Wireless Communications?, Wiley, Student second Edition.
3. Vijay Garg , ?Wireless Network Evolution 2G-3G?, Pearson Education.
4. Young Kyun Kim and Ramjee Prasad, ?4 G Roadmap and Emerging Communication Technologies ?, Artech house.:
5. Raj Pandya , ?Mobile And Personal Communications Systems And Services?, Prentice hall. 6. Singhal , ?Wireless Communication?, TMH
7. C.Y Lee , ?Mobile Communication?, Wiley
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining question will be selected from all the modules.
Optical Communication and Networks
Optical Fiber Communication Technology
Block diagram, advantages, loss and bandwidth window, ray theory transmission, total internal reflection, acceptance angle, numerical aperture, and skew rays

EM waves, modes in planer guide, phase and group velocities, types of fibers according to refractive index profile and mode transmission.

Fiber material, fiber cables and fiber fabrication, fiber joints, fiber connectors, splices.

Transmission Characteristic of Optical Fiber
Attenuation, absorption, linear and nonlinear scattering losses, bending losses, modal dispersion, waveguide dispersion, dispersion and pulse broadening, dispersion shifted and dispersion flattened fibers, and non linear effects

Measurements of attenuation, dispersion and OTDR

Optical Communication Systems

Working principle and characteristics of sources (LED, LASER), and optical amplifiers
Working principle and characteristics of detectors (PIN, APD), noise analysis in detectors, coherent and non-coherent detection, receiver structure, bit error rate of optical receivers, and receiver performance.

Point to point links system considerations, link power budget, and rise time budget

Optical Network System Components and Optical Networks
Couplers, isolators, circulators, multiplexers, filters, fiber gratings, Fabry Perot filters, arrayed waveguide grating, switches and wavelength converters
4.2
SONET and SDH standards, architecture of optical transport networks (OTNs), network topologies, protection schemes in SONET/SDH, and wavelength routed architectures.
4.3
Operational principle of WDM, WDM network elements and Architectures, Introduction to DWDM, Solitons.

Packet Switching and Access Networks
OTDM, multiplexing and de-multiplexing, synchronization and broadcast OTDM networks.
Network architecture overview, OTDN networks, optical access networks, and future access networks.

Network Design and Management
Transmission system model, power penalty-transmitter, receiver optical amplifiers, crosstalk, dispersion, wavelength stabilization.

Network management functions, configuration management, performance management, fault management, optical safety, and service interface

Recommended Books: 1. John M. Senior, ?Optical Fiber Communication?, Prentice Hall of India Publication, Chicago, 3rd Edition, 2013 2. Gred Keiser, ?Optical Fiber Communication?, Mc-Graw Hill Publication , Singapore, 4th Edition, 2012 3. G Agrwal, ?Fiber optic communication Systems?, John Wiley and Sons, 3rd Edition, New York 2014 4. Rajiv Ramaswami and Kumar N. Sivarajan, ?Optical Networks: A Practical Perespective?, Elsevier Publication Elsevier India Pvt.ltd, 3rd Edition, 2010 5. P.E.Green, ?Optical Networks?, Prentice Hall,1994 6. Biswanath Mukherjee, ?Optical Communication Networks?, McGraw-Hill, 1997. 7. Le Nguyen Binh, ?Optical Fiber Communication System: Theory and Practice with MATLAB and Simulink?, CRC Press, 2010
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining questions will be selected from all the modules
Microwave and Radar Engineering
Waveguides and Microwave Components
Frequency bands and characteristics of microwaves
Rectangular and circular waveguides, mode analysis
Resonators, reentrant cavities, scattering parameters, tees, hybrid ring, directional couplers, phase shifters, terminations attenuators, ferrite devices such as isolators, gyrators, and circulators.

Impedance Matching and Tuning
Lumped element matching

Single stub tuning, double stub tuning, triple stub tuning

Quarter wave transformer

Generation and Amplification of Microwaves
Two Cavity Klystron and Reflex Klystron
Helix Travelling Wave Tube and Backward Wave Oscillator
Cross Field Amplifier, Cylindrical Magnetron, and Gyrotrons
Semiconductor Microwave Devices (construction, working, equivalent circuit and performance characteristics)
Varactor, PIN, Tunnel, Point Contact, Schottky Barrier, Gunn, IMPATT, TRAPATT, and BARITT.
BJT, Hetro junction BJT, MESFET, and HEMT

Parametric Amplifiers

RADAR
Basics of RADAR and RADAR range equation
Types of RADAR: Pulsed, Continuous wave and FMCW, Doppler, MTI, and Phased Array

Types of displays and Clutter
Tracking RADAR: Monopulse, Conical, Sequentiallobing
Microwave Applications

Microwave heating and bio-medical applications

Remote sensing RADAR, MSTRADAR, radiometer, instrumentation landing system, and RADAR based navigation

Recommended Books:
1. David M Pozar, ?Microwave Engineering?, John Wieley & Sons,Inc. Hobokenh,New Jersey, Fourth Edition, 2012.
2. Samuel YLiao, ?Microwave Devices and Circuits?, Pearson Education, Third Edition
3. Merill Skolnik, ?Introduction to RADAR Systems?, TataMcgraw Hill , Third Edition
4. Annapurna Das and Sisir K Das, ?Microwave Engineering?, Tata McGraw Hill,New Delhi, Second Edition, 2009
5. K. T. Matthew, ?Microwave Engineering?, Wieleyindia, ,2011
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining questions will be selected from all the modules
Data Compression and Encryption
Data Compression
08 1.1 Compression Techniques: Loss less compression, Lossy compression, measure of performance, modeling and coding, different types of models, and coding techniques 1.2 Text Compression: Minimum variance Huffman coding, extended Huffman coding, Adaptive Huffman coding. Arithmetic coding, Dictionary coding techniques ,LZ 77, LZ 78, LZW

Audio Compression
2.1 High quality digital audio, frequency and temporal masking, lossy sound compression, ?-law and A-law companding, and MP3 audio standard

mage and Video Compression
12 3.1 PCM, DPCM JPEG, JPEG –LS , and JPEG 2000 standards
3.2 Intra frame coding, motion estimation and compensation, introduction to MPEG -2 H-264 encoder and decoder

Data Security
Security goals, cryptography, stenography cryptographic attacks, services and mechanics. 4.2 Integer arithmetic, modular arithmetic, and linear congruence 4.3 Substitution cipher, transposition cipher, stream and block cipher, and arithmetic modes for block ciphers 4.4 Data encryption standard, double DES, triple DES, attacks on DES, AES, key distribution center.

Number Theory and Asymmetric Key Cryptography

5.1 Primes, factorization, Fermat’s little theorem, Euler’s theorem, and extended Euclidean algorithm
5.2 RSA, attacks on RSA, Diffie Hellman key exchange , key management, and basics of elliptical curve cryptography 5.3 Message integrity, message authentication, MAC, hash function, H MAC, and digital signature algorithm

System Security

Malware, Intruders, Intrusion detection system, firewall design, antivirus techniques, digital Immune systems, biometric authentication, and ethical hacking.

Recommended Books:
1. Khalid Sayood, ? Introduction to Data Compression? ,Morgan Kaufmann, 2000
2. David Saloman, ?Data Compression: The complete reference? , Springer publication 3. Behrous Forouzen, ?Cryptography and Network Security?, Tata Mc Graw –Hill Education 2011 4. Berard Menezes, ?Network Security and Cryptography?, learning publication Cengage 5. William Stallings, ?Cryptography and Network Security?, Pearson Education Asia Publication, 5th edition
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining questions will be selected from all the modules
Statistical Signal Processing
Review of Signals and Systems

Review of stochastic Processes
Gauss-Markow models, representation of stochastic process, likelihood and sufficiency
Detection Theory

One way, two way ANOVA table, hypothesis testing, decision criteria
Multiple measurements, multiple-hypothesis testing, and composite hypothesis Testing
Chi-square testing, asymptotic error rate of LRT for simple hypothesis testing, CFAR detection, sequential detection and Wald’s test.
Detection of Signals in Noise
Detection of known signals in white noise
Correlation receiver and detection of known signals in colored noise
Detection of known signals in noise and maximum SNR criterion
Solution of integral equations and detection of signals parameters
Estimation Theory

Estimation of Parameters
Bayes Estimates and estimation of nonrandom parameters
Properties of estimators, linear mean-square estimation, and reproducing densities
Estimation of Waveforms
Linear MMSE Estimation of Waveforms
The Wiener Filter for estimation of stationary processes
5.3
Kalman Filter for estimation of non-stationary processes
5.4
Relation between the Kalman and Wiener Filters, nonlinear estimation, and nonparametric detection
Applications

Spread spectrum communications
6.2
RADAR target models, and target detection
6.3
Parameter estimation in RADAR systems
6.4
Dynamic Target Tracking, pattern classification and system identification

Recommended Books:
1. M.D. Srinath, P.K. Rajasekaran, and R. Viswanathan, ?Introduction to Statistical Signal Processing with Application?, Pearson Education
2. Robert M. Gray and Lee D. Davisson, ?An Introduction to Statistical Signal Processing?, Pearson Education
3. Steven Kay, ?Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing Volume-I: Estimation Theory?, Prentice hall publication
4. Steven Kay, ?Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing Volume-II: Detection Theory?, Prentice hall publication
5. Steven Kay, ?Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing Volume-III: Practical Algorithm Development?, Prentice hall publication
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining question will be selected from all the modules.
Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic
Introduction to Neural Networks and its Basic Concepts:
Biological neurons and McCulloch and Pitts models of neuron
1.2
Types of activation functions
1.3
Neural networks architectures
1.4
Linearly separable and linearly non-separable systems and their examples
Features and advantages of neural networks over statistical techniques

Knowledge representation, learning process, error-correction learning, concepts of supervised learning, and unsupervised learning

Supervised Learning Neural Networks:
Single layer perception and multilayer perceptron neural networks, their architecture

Error back propagation algorithm, generalized delta rule, learning factors, step learning

Momentum learning
Concept of training, testing and cross-validation data sets for design and validation of the networks
Unsupervised Learning Neural Networks:
Competitive earning networks, kohonen self-organizing networks
3.2
K-means and LMS algorithms
3.3
RBF neural network, its structure and Hybrid training algorithm for RBF neural networks
3.4
Comparison of RBF and MLP networks Learning
3.5
Vector Quantization neural network architecture and its training algorithm
3.6
Hebbian learning, Hopfield networks.
Applications of Neural Networks:
Pattern classification
Handwritten character recognition
4.3
Face recognition
4.4
Image compression and decompression
Fuzzy logic
Basic Fuzzy logic theory, sets and their properties
Operations on fuzzy sets
5.3
Fuzzy relation and operations on fuzzy relations and extension principle
5.4
Fuzzy membership functions and linguistic variables
5.5
Fuzzy rules and fuzzy reasoning
5.6
Fuzzification and defuzzification and their methods
5.7
Fuzzy inference systems, Mamdani Fuzzy models, and Fuzzy knowledge based controllers Applications of Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Systems:
Fuzzy pattern recognition
Fuzzy image processing
Simple applications of Fuzzy knowledge based controllers like washing machines, traffic regulations, and lift control

Recommended Books:
1. S. Rajsekaran and G. A. Vijaylakshmi Pai, ?Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic, and Genetic Algorithms?, PHI
2. Simon Haykin, ?Neural Network- A Comprehensive Foundation?, Pearson Education
3. Thimothy J. Ross, ?Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications?, Wiley India Publications
4. Laurence Fausett, ?Fundamentals of Neural Networks?, Pearson Education
5. S. N. Sivanandam, S. Sumathi, and S. N. Deepa, ?Introduction to Neural Network Using MATLAB”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publications
6. Bart Kosko, ?Neural networks and Fuzzy Systems”, Pearson Education
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining questions will be selected from all the modules
CMOS Analog and Mixed Signal VLSI Design
Fundamental Analog Building Blocks
MOS Transistor as sampling switch, active resistances, current source and sinks, current mirror and current amplifiers
1.2
Voltage and current references, band gap voltage reference, Beta-Multipler referenced self-biasing

Single Stage MOS Amplifiers

Common-source stage (with resistive load, diode connected load, current-source load, triode load, source degeneration), source follower, common-gate stage, cascode stage, folded cascade stage, simulation of CMOS amplifiers using SPICE
2.2
Single-ended operation, differential operation, basic differential pair, large-signal
and small-signal behavior, common-mode response, differential pair with MOS loads, simulation of differential amplifiers using SPICE
2.3
Noise characteristics in the frequency and time domains, thermal noise, shot noise, flicker noise, popcorn noise, noise models of IC components, representation of noise in circuits, noise in single-stage amplifiers (CS, CD and CG stages), noise in differential pairs, noise bandwidth, noise figure, noise temperature.

MOS Operational Amplifiers Desing
Trans-conductance operational amplifier (OTA), two stage CMOS operational amplifier
3.2
CMOS operational amplifiers compensation, cascade operational amplifier and folded cascade

Non-Linear & Dynamic Analog Circuits
4.1
Switched capacitor amplifiers (SC), switched capacitor integrators, first and second order switched capacitor circuits.
4.2
Basic CMOS comparator design, adaptive biasing, analog multipliers
Data Converter Fundamentals
5.1
Analog versus digital discrete time signals, converting analog signals to data signals, sample and hold characteristics
5.2
DAC specifications, ADC specifications, mixed-signal layout issues

Data Converter Architectures
6.1
DAC architectures, digital input code, resistors string, R-2R ladder networks, current steering, charge scaling DACs, Cyclic DAC, pipeline DAC,
6.2
ADC architectures, flash, 2-step flash ADC, pipeline ADC, integrating ADC, and successive approximation ADC

Recommended Books:
1. B. Razavi, “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits”, first edition, McGraw Hill,2001.
2. Harry W. Li and David E Boyce, “CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, Stimulation”, PHI Edn, 2005
3. P.E.Allen and D R Holberg, “CMOS Analog Circuit Design”, second edition, Oxford University Press, 2002.
4. Gray, Meyer, Lewis and Hurst “Analysis and design of Analog Integrated Circuits”, 4th Edition Willey International, 2002
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining questions will be selected from all the modules
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