Electronics engineering semester 7 syllabus


Electronics engineering semester 7 syllabus

Embedded System Design
Recommended Books:
1. Embedded Systems, Rajkamal , TMH, 2008.
2. Frank Vahid – Embedded Systems , Wiley India, 2002
3. ARM System-on-Chip Architecture, Steve Furber – Pearson 2005
4. Jean J Labrose – MicroC / OS-II, Indian Low Price Edition 2002
5. DR.K.V.K.K. Prasad – Embedded / real time system, Dreamtech
6. Iyer, Gupta – Embedded real systems Programming , TMH
7. Embedded systems software primer, David Simon – Pearson
8. ARM System Developers Guide- Sloss, Symes, Wright, ElsevierMorgan Kaufman, 2005
9. LPC2148 Data Sheets www.arm.com
10. ARM Programers/architectural manual.
11. MSP430 architectural manual.
12. Embedded Microcomputer Systems – Real Time Interfacing – Jonathan W. Valvano; Cengage Learning; Third or later edition.
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered for final internal assessment. End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining question will be selected from all the modules.
IC Technology
Environment and Crystal Growth for VLSI Technology
1.1
Environment: Semiconductor technology trend, Clean rooms, Wafer cleaning
1.2
Semiconductor Substrate: Phase diagram and solid solubility, Crystal structure, Crystal defects, Czochralski growth, Bridgman growth of GaAs, Float Zone growth, Wafer Preparation and specifications
2.0
Fabrication Processes Part 1
2.1
Deposition: Evaporation, Sputtering and Chemical Vapor Deposition
2.2
Epitaxy: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Vapor Phase Epitaxy, Liquid Phase Epitaxy, Evaluation of epitaxial layers
2.3
Silicon Oxidation: Thermal oxidation process, Kinetics of growth, Properties of Silicon Dioxide, Oxide Quality, high ? and low ? dielectrics
2.4
Diffusion: Nature of diffusion, Diffusion in a concentration gradient, diffusion equation, impurity behavior, diffusion systems, problems in diffusion, evaluation of diffused layers
2.5
Ion Implantation: Penetration range, ion implantation systems, process considerations, implantation damage and annealing
3.0
Fabrication Processess Part 2
3.1
Etching: Wet chemical etching, dry physical etching, dry chemical etching, reactive ion etching, ion beam techniques
3.2
Lithography: Photoreactive materials, Pattern generation and mask making, pattern transfer, Electron beam, Ion beam and X-ray lithography
3.3
Device Isolation, Contacts and Metallization: Junction and oxide isolation, LOCOS, trench isolation, Schottky contacts, Ohmic contacts, Metallization and Packaging
CMOS Process Flow: N well, P-well and Twin tub
Design rules, Layout of MOS based circuits (gates and combinational logic), Buried and Butting Contact
Measurements, Packaging and Testing
Semiconductor Measurements: Conductivity type, Resistivity, Hall Effect Measurements, Drift Mobility, Minority Carrier Lifetime and diffusion length
Packaging: Integrated circuit packages, Electronics package reliability
Testing: Technology trends affecting testing, VLSI testing process and test equipment, test economics and product quality
SOI, GaAs and Bipolar Technologies
5.1
SOI Technology: SOI fabrication using SIMOX, Bonded SOI and Smart Cut, PD SOI and FD SOI Device structure and their features
5.2
GaAs Technologies: MESFET Technology, Digital Technologies, MMIC technologies, MODFET and Optoelectronic Devices
5.3
Silicon Bipolar Technologies: Second order effects in Environment and Crystal Growth for VLSI Technology
Environment: Semiconductor technology trend, Clean rooms, Wafer cleaning
Semiconductor Substrate: Phase diagram and solid solubility, Crystal structure, Crystal defects, Czochralski growth, Bridgman growth of GaAs, Float Zone growth, Wafer Preparation and specifications
Fabrication Processes Part 1
Deposition: Evaporation, Sputtering and Chemical Vapor Deposition
Epitaxy: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Vapor Phase Epitaxy, Liquid Phase Epitaxy, Evaluation of epitaxial layers
Silicon Oxidation: Thermal oxidation process, Kinetics of growth, Properties of Silicon Dioxide, Oxide Quality, high ? and low ? dielectrics
Diffusion: Nature of diffusion, Diffusion in a concentration gradient, diffusion equation, impurity behavior, diffusion systems, problems in diffusion, evaluation of diffused layers
Ion Implantation: Penetration range, ion implantation systems, process considerations, implantation damage and annealing
Fabrication Processess Part 2
Etching: Wet chemical etching, dry physical etching, dry chemical etching, reactive ion etching, ion beam techniques
3.2
Lithography: Photoreactive materials, Pattern generation and mask making, pattern transfer, Electron beam, Ion beam and X-ray lithography
3.3
Device Isolation, Contacts and Metallization: Junction and oxide isolation, LOCOS, trench isolation, Schottky contacts, Ohmic contacts, Metallization and Packaging
3.4
CMOS Process Flow: N well, P-well and Twin tub
3.5
Design rules, Layout of MOS based circuits (gates and combinational logic), Buried and Butting Contact
4.0
Measurements, Packaging and Testing
Semiconductor Measurements: Conductivity type, Resistivity, Hall Effect Measurements, Drift Mobility, Minority Carrier Lifetime and diffusion length
4.2
Packaging: Integrated circuit packages, Electronics package reliability
4.3
Testing: Technology trends affecting testing, VLSI testing process and test equipment, test economics and product quality
5.0
SOI, GaAs and Bipolar Technologies
SOI Technology: SOI fabrication using SIMOX, Bonded SOI and Smart Cut, PD SOI and FD SOI Device structure and their features
5.2
GaAs Technologies: MESFET Technology, Digital Technologies, MMIC technologies, MODFET and Optoelectronic Devices
5.3
Silicon Bipolar Technologies: Second order effects in
Recommended Books:
1. James D. Plummer, Michael D. Deal and Peter B. Griffin, “Silicon VLSI Technology”, Pearson, Indian Edition.
2. Stephen A. Campbell, “The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication”, Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition.
3. Sorab K. Gandhi, “VLSI Fabrication Principles”, Wiley, Student Edition.
4. G. S. May and S. M. Sze, “Fundamentals of Semiconductor Fabrication”, Wiley, First Edition.
5. Kerry Bernstein and N. J. Rohrer, “SOI Circuit Design Concepts”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1st edition.
6. Jean-Pierre Colinge, “FinFETs and Other Multigate Transistors”, Springer, 1st edition
7. M. S. Tyagi, “Introduction to Semiconductor Materials and Devices”, John Wiley and Sons, 1st edition.
8. James E. Morris and Krzysztol Iniewski, “Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook”, CRC Press
9. Glenn R. Blackwell, “The electronic packaging”, CRC Press
10. Michael L. Bushnell and Vishwani D. Agrawal, “Essentials of Electronic Testing for digital, memory and mixed-signal VLSI circuits”, Springer
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining question will be selected from all the modules.
 Power Electronics II
Rectifiers and Inverters:
Effect of source inductance in 1-phase and 3-phase rectifiers, distortion in line current waveforms, voltage distortion for diode and SCR based rectifiers
PWM for 3-phase voltage source inverters, Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique for 3-phase voltage source inverters, hysteresis control.
DC-DC Converters:
Average model, linearized and transfer function models, state-space average models of basic buck, boost and buck-boost converters, Feedback control of these converters (PI and PID).
Power Electronic Applications
Use of power electronic systems in SMPS, Battery charging systems, UPS and Induction heating.
Power Electronic Applications in DC Drives
4.1
Various schemes of DC motor speed control, single-phase half-wave semi converter & full converter drive for separately excited DC motor, Dynamic and Regenerative braking of DC motor
Power Electronic Applications in AC Drives
Introduction to speed control of three-phase induction motor methods:
i) Stator voltage
ii) Variable frequency
iii) Rotor resistance
iv) V/f control
v) Regenerative braking.
Recommended Books:
1. M. Rashid, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices, and Applications, PHI, 3rd Edition.
2. By M. D. Singh, K. B. Khanchandani, Power Electronics, Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition.
3. Mohan, Undeland and Riobbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications and Design, Wiley (Student Edition), 2nd Edition.
4. P. S. Bimbhra, Power Electronics, Khanna Publishers, 2012.
5. R. W. Erickson, D. Maksimovic, Fundamentals of Power Electronics, Springer, 2nd Edition.
6. J. P. Agrawal, Power Electronics Systems: Theory and Design, Pearson Education, 2002.
7. S. Bacha, I. Munteanu and A. Bratcu, Power Electronic Converters: Modeling and Control, Springer-Verlag, 2014.
8. H. Sira-Ramírez, R. Silva-Ortigoza, Control Design Techniques in Power Electronics Devices, Springer-Verlag, 2006
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining questions will be selected from all the modules
Computer Communication and Networks
Introduction to Network Architectures, Protocol Layers, and Service models
10
1.1
Network Hardware: Topologies, LAN, MAN, WAN, Wireless network, Home Network, Internetworks, Virtual LANs
1.2
Network Software: Protocol Hierarchies, Design Issues for the layers, Connection oriented and connectionless Services
1.3
Reference Models: Layers details of OSI, TCP/IP Models, Protocol Layers and Their Service Models
2
Physical-layer Services and Systems
08
2.1
Introduction to physical media, Coax, fiber, twisted pair, DSL, HFC
2.2
Data link layer services and protocols: Link-layer and its services, Ethernet, hubs, bridges, and switches, Link- layer addressing, Error-detection and error-correction. Parity, check-summing, CRC, Manchester encoding. Aloha protocols, Control Access Protocol, Carrier Sense
2.3
Multiple Access (CSMA), Local Area Networks – Ethernet, Token ring, FDDI. WiMax, cellular, satellite, and telephone networks, Bit transmission, Frequency division multiplexing. Time division multiplexing
Data Link Layer Protocol
PPP, HDLC, Stop and wait protocol
4
Network Layer Services and Protocols
Switching fabric, Routing and forwarding, Queues and buffering, Virtual-circuit and datagram networks, Internet protocol
4.2
IPv4 and IPv6, Tunneling, LS and DV algorithms. Routing in the Internet, RIP, OSPF, and BGP
4.3
Broadcast and multicast, Handling mobility
Reliable and Unreliable Transport-layer Protocols
GBN and SR. TCP and UDP. Port numbers, Multiplexing and de-multiplexing
Flow control and congestion control. Fairness, Delay, jitter, and loss in packet-switched networks
Bandwidth, throughput, and quality-of-service
Principles of Network Applications.
Application layer protocols such as HTTP, FTP, and SMTP,
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Protocols and Architectures, ISPs and Domain name systems, Socket API and network socket programming
Recommended Books:
1. B. A. Forouzan, “Data Communications and Networking”, TMH, Fourth Edition.
2. S. Tanenbaum, “Computer Networks”, Pearson Education, Fourth Edition.
1. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, by J. F. Kurose and K. W. Ross, Addison Wesley, 5th Edition, March 2009, ISBN-13: 978-0136079675.
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining questions will be selected from all the modules
Digital Image Processing
Digital Image Processing Fundamentals
Introduction: Background, Digital Image Representation, Fundamental Steps in Image Processing, Elements of a Digital Image Processing System
Digital Image Fundamentals: Elements of Visual Perception, A Simple Image Model, Sampling and Quantization, Some Basic Relationships between Pixels, Imagining Geometry. Image File Formats : BMP, TIFF and JPEG. Colour Models
(RGB, HSI, YUV)
Image Enhancement
Spatial Domain Methods, Frequency Domain Methods, Some Simple Intensity Transformations, Histogram Processing, Image Subtraction, Image Averaging, Background
2.2
Smoothing Filters, Sharpening Filters, Lowpass Filtering, Highpass Filtering, Generation of Spatial Masks from Frequency Domain Specifications. Homomorphic Filtering.
3
Image Segmentation and Representation
Detection of Discontinuities, Edge Linking using Hough Transform, Thresholding, Region based Segmentation, Split and Merge Technique,
Image Representation and Description, Chain Code, Polygonal, Representation, Shape Number, Moments.
Binary Image Processing
Binary Morphological Operators, Hit-or-Miss Transformation, Boundary Extraction, Region Filling, Thinning and Thickening, Connected Component Labeling, Iterative Algorithm and Classical Algorithm
Image Transform
Introduction to the Fourier Transform, The Discrete Fourier Transform, Some Properties of the Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Fast Fourier Transform(FFT),
Discrete Hadamard Transform(DHT), Fast Hadamard Transform(FHT), Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT), Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT),
Image Compression:
Fundamentals – Coding Redundancy, Interpixel Redundancy, Psychovisual Redundancy, Fidelity Criteria.
Image Compression Models – The Source Encoder and Decoder, Lossless Compression Techniques : Run Length Coding, Arithmetic Coding, Huffman Coding, Differential PCM,
Lossy Compression Techniques: Improved Gray Scale Quantization, Vector Quantization, JPEG, MPEG-1.
Recommended Books:
1. Rafel C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods, ‘Digital Image Processing’, Pearson Education Asia, Third Edition, 2009,
2. S. Jayaraman, E.Esakkirajan and T.Veerkumar, “Digital Image Processing” TataMcGraw Hill Education Private Ltd, 2009,
3. Anil K. Jain, “Fundamentals and Digital Image Processing”, Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd, Third Edition
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining questions will be selected from all the modules
Artificial Intelligence
Fundamental Concepts of Neural Networks
Difference between fuzzy and crisp sets and applications of fuzzy logic and fuzzy systems.
Biological neurons, McCulloch and Pitts models of neuron, Important Terms of ANNs, McCulloch-Pitts Neuron, Hebb Network, Supervised learning, Unsupervised learning,
Applications and scope of Neural Network
Supervised Learning Networks
Perception Networks: Adaline, Madaline
Back Propagation Network
Function Network
Unsupervised learning network
Max Net, Mexican Hat, Kohonen Self-organizing Feature
Maps, Learning Vector Quantization, Adaptive Resonance Theory
Associative networks
Pattern Association, Auto-associative Memory Network, Hetero-associative Memory Network, Bidirectional Associative Memory, Discrete Hopfield Networks
Special networks:
Simulated annealing neural networks, Boltzmann machine, Brain-in-a-Box Model
Fuzzy logic
Fuzzy sets, Properties, Operations on fuzzy sets, Fuzzy relation Operations on fuzzy relations,
The extension principle, Fuzzy mean Membership functions, Fuzzification and defuzzification methods
Fuzzy controllers, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy information systems (ANFIS)
Recommended Books:
1. Simon Haykin, “Neural Network a – Comprehensive Foundation”, Pearson Education
2. Dr.S.N.Sivanandam,Mrs S.N. Deepa Introduction to Soft computing tool Wiley Publication
3. Satish Kumar Neural Networks:A classroom Approach Tata McGraw-Hill
4. Thimothv J. Ross, “Fuzz V Logic with Engineering Applications”, McGraw -Hill
5. Rajsekaran S, Vijaylakshmi Pai, Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic, andGenetic Algorithms, PHI
6. Hagan, Demuth, Beale, ‘Neural Network Design’, Thomson Learning
7. Christopher M Bishop Neural Networks For Pattern Recognition ,Oxford Publication
8. William W Hsieh Machine Learning Methods in the Environmental Sciences Neural Network and Kernels Cambridge Publication
9. Dr.S.N.Sivanandam, Dr.S.Sumathi Introduction to Neural Network Using Matlab Tata McGraw-Hill
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining questions will be selected from all the modules
ASIC Verification
Programmable Devices and Verilog
Programmable Devices: Architecture of FPGA, CPLD with an example of Virtex-7 and Spartan -6 family devices
Verilog HDL: Data types, expressions, assignments, behavioral, gate and switch level modeling, tasks and functions
Verification Basics: Technology challenges, Verification methodology options, Verification methodology, Testbench creation, testbench migration, Verification languages, Verification IP reuse, Verification approaches, Verification and device test, Verification plans, reference design of Bluetooth SoC, Verification Guidelines
Data types, procedural statements and testbench
Data Types: Built in, Fixed size array, dynamic array, queues, associative array, linked list, array methods, choosing a storage type, creating new types with typedef, creating user-defined structures, type conversion, enumerated types, constants, strings, expression width
Procedural Statements and Routines: Procedural statements, tasks, functions and void functions, task and function overview, routine arguments, returning from a routine, local data storage, time values
Connecting the Testbench and Design: Separating the testbench and design, the interface construct, stimulus timing, interface driving and sampling, connecting it all together, top-level scope, program-module interactions, system verilog assertions, the four port ATM router, the ref port direction, the end of simulation, directed test for the LC3 fetch block
OOP and Randomization
Basic OOP: Class, Creating new objects, Object deallocation, using objects, variables, class methods, defining methods outside class, scoping rules, using one class inside another, understanding dynamic objects, copying objects, public vs. local, building a testbench
Randomization: Randomization in system Verilog, constraint details, solution probabilities, controlling multiple constraint blocks, valid constraints, In-line constraints, The pre-randomize and post-randomize functions, Random number functions, Constraints tips and techniques, common randomization problems, Iterative and array constraints, Atomic stimulus generation vs. scenario generation, random control, random number generators, random device configuration
IPC and advanced OOP
Threads and Interprocess Communication: working with threads, disabling threads, interprocess communication, events, semaphores, mailboxes, building a testbench with threads and IPC
Advanced OOP and Testbench Guidelines: Inheritance, Blueprint pattern, downcasting and virtual methods, composition, inheritance and alternatives, copying an object, abstract classes and pure virtual methods, callbacks, parameterized classes
Assertions and Functional Coverage
System Verilog Assertions: Assertions in verification methodology, Understanding sequences and properties, SystemVerilog Assertions in the Design Process, Formal Verification Using Assertions and SystemVerilog Assertions Guidelines Functional Coverage: Coverage types, strategies, examples, anatomy of a cover group, triggering a cover group, data sampling, cross coverage, generic cover groups, coverage options, analyzing coverage data, measuring coverage statistics during simulation
Advanced interfaces and interfacing with C
Advanced Interfaces: Virtual interfaces with the ATM router, Connecting to multiple design configurations, procedural code in an interface
A complete System Verilog Testbench: Design blocks, testbench blocks, alternate tests
Interfacing with C: Passing simple values, connecting to a simple C routine, connecting to C++, simple array sharing, open arrays, sharing composite types, pure and context imported methods, communicating from C to system verilog, connecting other languages
Recommended Books:
1. Chris Spear, “System Verilog for Verification: A guide to learning the testbench language features”, Springer, 2nd Edition
2. Stuart Sutherland, Simon Davidmann, and Peter Flake, “System Verilog for Design: A guide to using system verilog for hardware design and modeling”, Springer, 2nd Edition.
3. Ben Cohen, Srinivasan Venkataramanan, Ajeetha Kumari and Lisa Piper, “SystemVerilog Assertions Handbook”, VhdlCohen Publishing, 3rd edition
4. System Verilog Language Reference manual
5. S Prakash Rashinkar, Peter Paterson and Leena Singh, “System on Chip Verification Methodologies and Techniques”, Kluwer Academic, 1st Edition.
6. Spartan and Virtex family user manuals from Xilinx
7. Verilog Language Reference manual
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining question will be selected from all the modules.
Optical Fiber Communication
Overview of Optical Fiber Communication
The evolution of fiber optic systems, elements of an optical fiber transmission link, block diagram, advantages of optical fiber communication, applications
Ray theory transmission, total internal reflection, acceptance angle, numerical aperture and skew rays
Modes, electromagnetic mode theory and propagation, single mode and multimode fibers, linearly polarized modes
Fiber material, fiber cables and fiber fabrication, fiber joints, fiber connectors, splicer
Optical Sources and Detectors
Coherent and non-coherent sources, quantum efficiency, modulation capability of optical sources
LEDs: Working principle and characteristics
Laser diodes: Working principle and characteristics
Working principle and characteristics of detectors: PIN and APD, noise analysis in
detectors, coherent and non-coherent detection, receiver structure, bit error rate of optical receivers, and receiver performance
Components of Optical Fiber Networks
Overview of fiber optic networks, trans-receiver, semiconductor optical amplifiers
Couplers/splicer, wavelength division multiplexers and de-multiplexers
Filters, isolators and optical switches
Transmission Characteristic of Optical Fiber
Attenuation, absorption, linear and nonlinear scattering losses, bending losses, modal dispersion, waveguide dispersion and pulse broadening,
Dispersion shifted and dispersion flattened fibers, and non linear effects
Measurement of optical parameters, attenuation and dispersion, OTDR
Optical Networks
SONET and SDH standards, architecture of optical transport networks (OTNs), network topologies
Operational principle of WDM, WDM network elements and Architectures, Introduction to DWDM, Solitons.
Network Design and Management
Point to point links system considerations, link power budget, and rise time budget
Transmission system model, power penalty-transmitter, receiver optical amplifiers, crosstalk, dispersion, wavelength stabilization.
Network management functions, configuration management, performance management, fault management, optical safety and service interface
Recommended Books:
1. John M. Senior, “Optical Fiber Communication”, Prentice Hall of India Publication, Chicago, 3rd Edition, 2013 2. Gred Keiser, “Optical Fiber Communication”, Mc-Graw Hill Publication , Singapore, 4th Edition, 2012 3. G Agarwal, “Fiber Optic Communication Systems”, John Wiley and Sons, 3rd Edition, New York 2014 4. S.C. Gupta, “Optoelectronic Devices and Systems”, Prentice Hall of India Publication, Chicago, 2005.
Internal Assessment (IA): Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks of both the test will be considered as final IA marks End Semester Examination: 1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each of 20 marks. 2. Total 4 questions need to be solved. 3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus wherein sub questions of 2 to 5 marks will be asked. 4. Remaining question will be selected from all the modules.
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