# NEET UG Syllabus and Exam Pattern

`EXAM PATTERN`
`Consists of 180 questions,45 each from BOTANY,ZOOLOGY,PHYSICS,CHEMISTRY`
` which will have to be answered in a duration of 3 hours.`

```Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

CORE SYLLABUS
Physics, Chemistry, Biology
(Higher Secondary Stage)
For National Eligibility-cum-Entrance
Test (NEET) for admission to MBBS
courses across the country
Medical Council of India
The Medical Council of India (MCI) recommends the following syllabus```
`for NationalEligibility-cum-Entrance Test for admission to MBBS courses`
`across the country (NEETUG) after review of various State syllabi as`
`well as those prepared by CBSE, NCERT andCOBSE.  This is to establish a`
``` uniformity across the country keeping in view the
relevance of different areas in medical education. Final Syllabus for```
```NEET-UG

PHYSICS Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

CONTENTS  CLASS XI  SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement
Details:-
•  Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and
society.
•  Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units,
fundamental and derived units.  Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy
and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant
figures.
•  Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
UNIT II: Kinematics
Details:-
•  Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and
velocity.  Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous
velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs,
for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
•  Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
Scalar and vector quantities:  Position and displacement vectors, general vectors,
general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a
real number; addition and subtraction of vectors.  Relative velocity.
•  Unit vectors.  Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.
•  Scalar and Vector products of Vectors.  Motion in a plane.  Cases of uniform
velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion.  Uniform circular motion.
UNIT III: Laws of Motion
Details:-
•  Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and
Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion.  Law of
conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
•  Equilibrium of concurrent forces.  Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction,
rolling friction, lubrication.
•  Dynamics of uniform circular motion.  Centripetal force, examples of circular
motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road). Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power
Details:-
•  Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy
theorem, power.
•  Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces;
conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies);```
```nonconservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in
one and two dimensions.
UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
Details:-
•  Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of
mass motion.  Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
•  Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular
momentum with some examples.
•  Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion,
comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of
gyration.  Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation).
Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
UNIT VI: Gravitation
Details:-
•  Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.  The universal law of gravitation.
Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
•  Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential.  Escape velocity, orbital
velocity of a satellite.  Geostationary satellites.
UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter
Details:-
•  Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk
modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.
•  Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and
turbulent flow.  Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
•  Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure,
application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG
•  Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and
gases.  Anomalous expansion.  Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry;
change of state – latent heat.
•  Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation.
Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green
House effect.
•  Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.
UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics
Details:-
•  Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of
Thermodynamics).  Heat, work and internal energy.  First law of
•  Second law of the thermodynamics:  Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat
engines and refrigerators.
UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
Details:-
•  Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
•  Kinetic theory of gases:  Assumptions, concept of pressure.  Kinetic energy and
temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only)
and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.
UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves
Details:-
•  Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time.  Periodic
functions.  Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of
a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential
energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free,
forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
•  Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion.
Displacement relation for a progressive wave.  Principle of superposition of
waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes,
fundamental mode and harmonics.  Beats.  Doppler effect. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

CONTENTS OF  CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Electrostatics
Details:-
•  Electric charges and their conservation.  Coulomb’s law-force between two point
charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous
charge distribution.
•  Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric
dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
•  Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to
infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly
charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
•  Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a
dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of
a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.
•  Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.
Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of
capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with
and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor,
Van de Graaff generator.
UNIT II: Current Electricity
Details:-
•  Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and
mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance,
V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical
resistivity and conductivity.
•  Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel
combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
•  Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of
cells in series and in parallel.
•  Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications.  Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
•  Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for
comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Details:-
•  Concept of  magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.  Biot-Savart law and its
application to current carrying circular loop.
•  Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and
toroidal solenoids.  Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric
fields.  Cyclotron.
•  Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field.  Force
between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere.  Torque
experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its
current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
•  Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.  Magnetic
dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic
dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis.  Torque on a
magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an
equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic
elements.
•  Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.
•  Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths.  Permanent magnets.
UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Details:-
•  Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law,
Eddy currents.  Self and mutual inductance.
•  Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance
and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit,
resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
•  AC generator and transformer.
UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves
Details:-
•  Need for displacement current.
•  Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only).
Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

•  Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet,
x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
UNIT VI: Optics
Details:-
•  Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula.  Refraction of light, total
internal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical
surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula.  Magnification, power
of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror.
Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
•  Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at
sunrise and sunset.
•  Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation,
correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.
•  Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their
magnifying powers.
•  Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of
plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.
•  Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
•  Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width,
coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
•  Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
•  Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.  Polarisation, plane
polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Details:-
•  Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric
equation- particle nature of light.
•  Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation.  Davisson-Germer
experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be
explained). Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei
Details:-
•  Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model,
energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.  Composition and size of nucleus, atomic
masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
•  Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay
law.  Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its
variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
UNIT IX: Electronic Devices
Details:-
•  Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and
semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse
bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and
Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.  Junction transistor, transistor
action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter
configuration) and oscillator.  Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Transistor as a switch . Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

CHEMISTRY Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
Details:-
•  General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
•  Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements,
atoms and molecules.
•  Atomic and molecular masses.  Mole concept and molar mass; percentage
composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions,
stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
UNIT II: Structure of Atom
Details:-
•  Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature
of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle,
concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling
electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s
rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely
filled orbitals.
UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Details:-
•  Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties
electronegativity, valence.
UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Details:-
•  Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure,
polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of
molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals
and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear
diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only).  Hydrogen bond. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG
14
UNITV: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Details:-
•  Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and
boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule,
Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of
gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation.
Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal
behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
•  Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea
only, no mathematical derivations).
UNITVI : Thermodynamics
Details:-
•  First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and
specific heat, measurement of    U and     H, Hess’s law of constant heat
summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization,
sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
•  Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs
energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for
equilibrium and spontaneity.
•  Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.
UNIT VII: Equilibrium
Details:-
•  Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium,
law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibriumLe Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong
and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid
strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions,
Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative
examples).
UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions
Details:-
•  Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation
number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and
change in oxidation numbers. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

UNIT IX: Hydrogen
Details:-
•  Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy
water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;
UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
Details:-
•  Group I and group 2 elements:
•  General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties
of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of
properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical
reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
•  Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
•  Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium
hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
•  Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements
Details:-
•  General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
•  Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous
properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds:
borax, boric acids, boron hydrides.  Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and
alkalies.
•  General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous
behaviour of first element.  Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical
properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
•  Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones,
silicates and zeolites, their uses. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
Details:-
•  General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative
analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
•  Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect,
resonance and hyper conjugation.
•  Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations,
carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons
Details:-
•  Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical
properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation,
combustion and pyrolysis.
•  Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism,
physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of
hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and
peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
•  Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties,
methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition
reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
•  Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance,
aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution-
Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation;
directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene;
carcinogenicity and toxicity.
UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry
Details:-
•  Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in
atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its
reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global
warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool
for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Solid State
Details:-
•  Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic
covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea),
unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density
of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit
cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band
theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
UNIT II: Solutions
Details:-
•  Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids,
solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative
lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression
of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using
colligative properties abnormal molecular mass.  Van Hoff factor.
UNIT III: Electrochemistry
Details:-
•  Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar
conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law,
electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells
and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential,
Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics
Details:-
•  Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction;
concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law
and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and
first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no
mathematical treatment).  Activation energy, Arrhenious equation. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

UNIT V: Surface Chemistry
Details:-
on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity:
enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and
suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids;
properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis,
coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Details:-
•  Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction
electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of
aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
UNIT VII: p- Block Elements
Details:-
•  Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and
properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only);
Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and
properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea
only).
•  Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation
states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen:
preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone.  Sulphur –
allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and
uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture,
properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
•  Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation
states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of
halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid,
interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
•  Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties, uses. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements
Details:-
•  General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals,
general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character,
ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property,
magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.  Preparation and
properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
•  Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and
lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
•  Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with
lanthanoids.
UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds
Details:-
•  Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour,
magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear
coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s
theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis,
biological systems).
UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Details:-
•  Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical
properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.  Optical rotation.
•  Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of
halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
•  Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane,
tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Details:-
•  Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and
tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to
methanol and ethanol. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

•  Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of
phenols.
•  Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties
uses.
UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Details:-
•  Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of
preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic
addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
•  Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical
and chemical properties; uses.
UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
Details:-
•  Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical
and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary
amines.
•  Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
•  Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic
organic chemistry.
UNIT XIV: Biomolecules
Details:-
•  Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose
and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose),
polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
•  Proteins- Elementary idea of  – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins,
primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure
(qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
•  Hormones-  Elementary idea (excluding structure).
•  Vitamins- Classification and function.
•  Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

UNIT XV: Polymers
Details:-
•  Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and
condensation), copolymerization.  Some important polymers: natural and
polymers.
UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life
Details:-
•  Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
•  Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea
of antioxidants.
•  Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

BIOLOGY Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Diversity in Living World

Details:
•  What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life;
Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy;
Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos,
Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
•  Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista
and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

•  Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes,
Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and
distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms-
classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
•  Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and
chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two
examples).
UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
Details:
•  Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts
of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose,
flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the
Practical Syllabus).
•  Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems
(digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect
(cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function
Details:
•  Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell
wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic
reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

micro bodies;  Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and
function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
•  Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of
proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme
action.
•  B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
UNIT IV: Plant Physiology

Details:-
•  Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell
transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations
– Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of
water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and
guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and
translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow
hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
•  Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role;
Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a
method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle,
biological nitrogen fixation.
•  Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of
photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary
idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non
cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3
and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
•  Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation
(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relationsNumber of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory
quotient.
•  Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and
plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and
redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth
regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy;
Vernalisation; Photoperiodism. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

UNIT IV: Human Physiology

Details:-
•  Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive
enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and
assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins,
carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM,
indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
•  Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory
system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of
gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders
related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
•  Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of
blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of
human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double
circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory systemHypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
•  Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism,
ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine
formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial
Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion;
Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial
kidney.
•  Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular;
Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its
functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints;
Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular
dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
•  Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans-
central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system;
Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary
structure and function of eye and ear.
•  Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human
endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal,
Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones
as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common
disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes,
(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)Final Syllabus for NEET-UG
CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Reproduction
Details:-
•  Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all
organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and
sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding,
gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
•  Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male
and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding
devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization eventsDevelopment of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of
fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of
seed and fruit formation.
•  Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic
anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis;
Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation,
implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition
(Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
•  Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually
transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and
Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted
reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general
awareness).
UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution
Details:-
•  Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from MendelismIncomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood
groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome
theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans,
Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal
disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

•  Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic
material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central
dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulationLac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
•  Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological
evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular
evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution;
Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural
Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift;
UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
Details:-
•  Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria,
Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring
worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS;
•  Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell
protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
•  Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production,
sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications
Details:-
•  Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant
DNA technology).
•  Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and
vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops;
Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents. Final Syllabus for NEET-UG

UNIT V: Ecology and environment
Details:-
•  Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological
parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age
distribution.
•  Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow;
Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and
phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation,
pollination, oxygen release.
•  Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of
Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity
conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book,
biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
•  Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its
control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive
waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion;
Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental
issues.```