# Anna University Semester 3 Civil engineering syllabus

Anna University Semester 3 Civil engineering syllabus – The syllabus for Anna University third semester in Civil Engineering for its bachelors degree course in B.E and B.Tech has a mathematics subject called transforms and partial differentiation that is challenging to clear.The core Civil subjects here are Mechanics of Solids and Mechanics of Fluids along with Surveying 1 that is very important for this branch.

## Transforms and Partial Differential Equations

UNIT I PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 9+3
Formation of partial differential equations – Singular integrals — Solutions of standard types of first
order partial differential equations – Lagrange?s linear equation — Linear partial differential
equations of second and higher order with constant coefficients of both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous
types.
UNIT II FOURIER SERIES 9+3
Dirichlet?s conditions – General Fourier series – Odd and even functions – Half range sine series –
Half range cosine series – Complex form of Fourier series – Parseval?s identity – Harmonic
analysis.
UNIT III APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 9+3
Classification of PDE – Method of separation of variables – Solutions of one dimensional wave
equation – One dimensional equation of heat conduction – Steady state solution of two
dimensional equation of heat conduction (excluding insulated edges).
UNIT IV FOURIER TRANSFORMS 9+3
Statement of Fourier integral theorem – Fourier transform pair – Fourier sine and
cosine transforms – Properties – Transforms of simple functions – Convolution theorem –
Parseval?s identity.
UNIT V Z – TRANSFORMS AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS 9+3
Z- transforms – Elementary properties – Inverse Z – transform (using partial fraction and residues)
– Convolution theorem – Formation of difference equations – Solution of difference equations
using Z – transform.

## Environmental engineering

UNIT I ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY 12
Definition, scope and importance of Risk and hazards; Chemical hazards, Physical hazards,
Biological hazards in the environment – concept of an ecosystem – structure and function of an
ecosystem – producers, consumers and decomposers- Oxygen cycle and Nitrogen cycle – energy
flow in the ecosystem – ecological succession processes – Introduction, types, characteristic
features, structure and function of the (a) forest ecosystem (b) grassland ecosystem (c) desert
ecosystem (d) aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) –
Introduction to biodiversity definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity – biogeographical
classification of India – value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical,
aesthetic and option values – Biodiversity at global, national and local levels – India as a megadiversity
nation – hot-spots of biodiversity – threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of
wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts – endangered and endemic species of India – conservation of
biodiversity: In-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
Field study of common plants, insects, birds
Field study of simple ecosystems – pond, river, hill slopes, etc.
UNIT II ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 10
Definition – causes, effects and control measures of: (a) Air pollution (Atmospheric chemistryChemical
composition of the atmosphere; Chemical and photochemical reactions in the
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atmosphere – formation of smog, PAN, acid rain, oxygen and ozone chemistry;- Mitigation
procedures- Control of particulate and gaseous emission, Control of SO2, NOX, CO and HC) (b)
Water pollution : Physical and chemical properties of terrestrial and marine water and their
environmental significance; Water quality parameters – physical, chemical and biological;
absorption of heavy metals – Water treatment processes. (c) Soil pollution – soil waste
management: causes, effects and control measures of municipal solid wastes – (d) Marine
pollution (e) Noise pollution (f) Thermal pollution (g) Nuclear hazards–role of an individual in
prevention of pollution – pollution case studies –
Field study of local polluted site – Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural.
UNIT III NATURAL RESOURCES 10
Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies- timber extraction, mining,
dams and their effects on forests and tribal people – Water resources: Use and overutilization of
surface and ground water, dams-benefits and problems – Mineral resources: Use and exploitation,
environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies – Food resources:
World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern
agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies – Energy resources:
Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy
sources. Energy Conversion processes – Biogas – production and uses, anaerobic digestion; case
studies – Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil
erosion and desertification – role of an individual in conservation of natural resources – Equitable
use of resources for sustainable lifestyles. Introduction to Environmental Biochemistry: Proteins –
Biochemical degradation of pollutants, Bioconversion of pollutants.
Field study of local area to document environmental assets – river / forest / grassland / hill /
mountain.
UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 7
From unsustainable to sustainable development – urban problems related to energy – water
conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management – resettlement and rehabilitation of
people; its problems and concerns, case studies – role of non-governmental organizationenvironmental
ethics: Issues and possible solutions – 12 Principles of green chemistry- nuclear
accidents and holocaust, case studies. – wasteland reclamation – consumerism and waste
products – environment production act – Air act – Water act – Wildlife protection act – Forest
conservation act –The Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules; 1998 and
amendments- scheme of labeling of environmentally friendly products (Ecomark). enforcement
machinery involved in environmental legislation- central and state pollution control boardsdisaster
management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.
Public awareness.
UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT 6
Population growth, variation among nations – population explosion – family welfare programme –
environment and human health – human rights – value education – HIV / AIDS – women and child
welfare –Environmental impact analysis (EIA)- -GIS-remote sensing-role of information technology
in environment and human health – Case studies

## Engineering Geology

UNIT I PHYSICAL GEOLOGY 9
Geology in civil engineering – branches of geology – structure of earth and its composition –
weathering of rocks – scale of weathering – soils – landforms and processes associated with river,
wind, groundwater and sea – relevance to civil engineering. Plate tectonics – Earth quakes –
Seismic zones in India.
UNIT II MINEROLOGY 9
Physical properties of minerals – Quartz group, Feldspar group, Pyroxene – hypersthene and
augite, Amphibole – hornblende, Mica – muscovite and biotite, Calcite, Gypsum and Clay
minerals.
UNIT III PETROLOGY 9
Classification of rocks, distinction between Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic rocks.
Engineering properties of rocks. Description, occurrence, engineering properties, distribution and
uses of Granite, Dolerite, Basalt, Sandstone, Limestone, Laterite, Shale, Quartzite, Marble, Slate,
Gneiss and Schist.
UNIT IV STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICAL METHODS 9
Geological maps – attitude of beds, study of structures – folds, faults and joints – relevance to
civil engineering. Geophysical methods – Seismic and electrical methods for subsurface
investigations.
UNIT V APPLICATION OF GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 9
Remote sensing for civil engineering applications; Geological conditions necessary for
design and construction of Dams, Reservoirs, Tunnels, and Road cuttings – Hydrogeological
investigations and mining – Coastal protection structures. Investigation of Landslides, causes and
mitigation.

## Mechanics of Solids

UNIT I STRESS AND STRAIN 9
Stress and strain at a point – Tension, Compression, Shear Stress – Hooke?s Law – Relationship
among elastic constants – Stress Strain Diagram for Mild Steel, TOR steel, Concrete – Ultimate
Stress – Yield Stress – Factor of Safety – Thermal Stresses – Thin Cylinders and Shells – Strain
Energy due to Axial Force – Resilience – Stresses due to impact and Suddenly Applied Load –
Compound Bars.
UNIT II SHEAR AND BENDING IN BEAMS 9
Beams and Bending- Types of loads, supports – Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams for
statically determinate beam with concentrated load, UDL, uniformly varying load. Theory of Simple
Bending – Analysis of Beams for Stresses – Stress Distribution at a cross Section due to bending
moment and shear force for Cantilever, simply supported and overhanging beams with different
UNIT III DEFLECTION 9
Double integration method – Macaulay’s methods – Area moment method – conjugate beam
method for computation of slopes and deflections of determinant beams.
UNIT IV TORSION 9
Torsion of Circular and Hollow Shafts – Elastic Theory of Torsion – Stresses and Deflection in
Circular Solid and Hollow Shafts – combined bending moment and torsion of shafts – strain energy
due to torsion – Modulus of Rupture – Power transmitted to shaft – Shaft in series and parallel –
Closed and Open Coiled helical springs – Leaf Springs – Springs in series and parallel – Design of
buffer springs.
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UNIT V COMPLEX STRESSES AND PLANE TRUSSES 9
2 D State of Stress – 2 D Normal and Shear Stresses on any plane – Principal Stresses and
Principal Planes – Mohr’s circle – Plane trusses: Analysis of plane trusses – method of joints –
method of sections.

## MEchanics of Fluids

UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID STATICS 9
Fluid – definition, distinction between solid and fluid – Units and dimensions – Properties of fluids –
density, specific weight, specific volume, specific gravity, temperature, viscosity, compressibility,
vapour pressure, capillarity and surface tension – Fluid statics: concept of fluid static pressure,
absolute and gauge pressures – pressure measurements by manometers and pressure gaugesforces
on planes – centre of pressure – bouncy and floatation.
UNIT II FLIUD KINEMATIC S AND DYNAMICS 9
Fluid Kinematics – Flow visualization – lines of flow – types of flow – velocity field and acceleration –
continuity equation (one and three dimensional differential forms)- Equation of streamline – stream
function – velocity potential function – circulation – flow net. Fluid dynamics – equations of motion –
Euler’s equation along a streamline – Bernoulli’s equation – applications – Venturi meter, Orifice
meter and Pitot tube. Linear momentum equation and its application.
UNIT III FLOW THROUGH PIPES 9
Viscous flow – Shear stress, pressure gradient relationship – laminar flow between parallel plates –
Laminar flow through circular tubes (Hagen poiseulle’s) – Hydraulic and energy gradient – flow
through pipes – Darcy -Weisbach’s equation – pipe roughness -friction factor- Moody’s diagramMajor
and minor losses of flow in pipes – Pipes in series and in parallel.
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UNIT IV BOUNDARY LAYER 9
Boundary layer – definition- boundary layer on a flat plate – thickness and classification –
displacement , energy and momentum thickness – Boundary layer separation and control – drag in
flat plate – drag and lift coefficients.
UNIT V DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND MODEL STUDIES 9
Fundamental dimensions – dimensional homogeneity – Rayleigh?s method and Buckingham PiTheorem
– Dimensionless parameters – Similitude and model studies – Distorted Models.

## SURVEYING 1

UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS AND CHAIN SURVEYING 9
Definition- Classifications – Basic principles-Equipment and accessories for ranging and
chaining – Methods of ranging – well conditioned triangles – Errors in linear measurement and
their corrections – Obstacles – Traversing – Plotting – applications- enlarging the reducing the
figures – Areas enclosed by straight line irregular figures- digital planimetre.
UNIT II COMPASS AND PLANE TABLE SURVEYING 9
Compass – Basic principles – Types – Bearing – Systems and conversions- Sources of errors
– Local attraction – Magnetic declination-Dip-Traversing – Plotting – Adjustment of closing
error – applications – Plane table and its accessories – Merits and demerits – Radiation –
Intersection – Resection – Traversing- sources of errors – applications.
UNIT III LEVELLING 9
Level line – Horizontal line – Datum – Bench marks -Levels and staves – temporary and
permanent adjustments – Methods of levelling – Fly levelling – Check levelling – Procedure in
levelling – Booking -Reduction – Curvature and refraction – Reciprocal levelling – Sources of
Errors in levelling- Precise levelling – Types of instruments – Adjustments – Field procedure
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UNIT IV LEVELLING APPLICATIONS 9
Longitudinal and Cross-section-Plotting – Contouring – Methods – Characteristics and uses of
contours – Plotting – Methods of interpolating contours – Computations of cross sectional areas
and volumes – Earthwork calculations – Capacity of reservoirs – Mass haul diagrams.
UNIT V THEODOLITE SURVEYING 9
Theodolite – Types – Description – Horizontal and vertical angles – Temporary and permanent