Anna University Semester 4 Civil Engineering syllabus

Anna University Semester 4 Civil Engineering syllabus – The fourth semester syllabus for Anna University in its bachelors degree course for Civil engineering bachelors degree Be or B.Tech has the most important subject of Surveying that is used extensively in the field job.Other core subjects of this semester are Strength of Materials and construction materials .Applied Hydraulic engineering also shares a common subject with Mechanical engineering branch.

Numerical Methods

UNIT I SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS AND EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS 10+3
Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations – Fixed point iteration method – Newton
Raphson method- Solution of linear system of equations – Gauss elimination method – Pivoting –
Gauss Jordan method – Iterative methods of Gauss Jacobi and Gauss Seidel – Matrix Inversion by
Gauss Jordan method – Eigen values of a matrix by Power method.
UNIT II INTERPOLATION AND APPROXIMATION 8+3
Interpolation with unequal intervals – Lagrange’s interpolation – Newton?s divided difference
interpolation – Cubic Splines – Interpolation with equal intervals – Newton?s forward and backward
difference formulae.
UNIT III NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION 9+3
Approximation of derivatives using interpolation polynomials – Numerical integration using
Trapezoidal, Simpson?s 1/3 rule – Romberg?s method – Two point and three point Gaussian
quadrature formulae – Evaluation of double integrals by Trapezoidal and Simpson?s 1/3 rules.
UNIT IV INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS 9+3
Single Step methods – Taylor?s series method – Euler?s method – Modified Euler?s method – Fourth
order Runge-Kutta method for solving first order equations – Multi step methods – Milne?s and
Adams-Bash forth predictor corrector methods for solving first order equations.
UNIT V BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS IN ORDINARY AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS 9+3
Finite difference methods for solving two-point linear boundary value problems – Finite difference
techniques for the solution of two dimensional Laplace?s and Poisson?s equations on rectangular
domain – One dimensional heat flow equation by explicit and implicit (Crank Nicholson) methods –
One dimensional wave equation by explicit method.

Construction Materials

UNIT I STONES – BRICKS – CONCRETE BLOCKS 9
Stone as building material – Criteria for selection – Tests on stones – Deterioration and
Preservation of stone work – Bricks – Classification – Manufacturing of clay bricks – Tests on
bricks – Compressive Strength – Water Absorption – Efflorescence – Bricks for special use –
Refractory bricks – Cement, Concrete blocks – Light weight concrete blocks.
UNIT II LIME – CEMENT – AGGREGATES – MORTAR 9
Lime – Preparation of lime mortar – Cement – Ingredients – Manufacturing process – Types and
Grades – Properties of cement and Cement mortar – Hydration – Compressive strength – Tensile
strength – Fineness– Soundness and consistency – Setting time – Industrial byproducts – Fly ash –
Aggregates – Natural stone aggregates – Crushing strength – Impact strength – Flakiness Index
– Elongation Index – Abrasion Resistance – Grading – Sand Bulking.
UNIT III CONCRETE 9
Concrete – Ingredients – Manufacturing Process – Batching plants – RMC – Properties of fresh
concrete – Slump – Flow and compaction Factor – Properties of hardened concrete –
Compressive, Tensile and shear strength – Modulus of rupture – Tests – Mix specification – Mix
proportioning – BIS method – High Strength Concrete and HPC – Self compacting Concrete –
Other types of Concrete – Durability of Concrete.
UNIT IV TIMBER AND OTHER MATERIALS 9
Timber – Market forms – Industrial timber– Plywood – Veneer – Thermacole – Panels of laminates –
Steel – Aluminum and Other Metallic Materials – Composition – Aluminium composite panel –
Uses – Market forms – Mechanical treatment – Paints – Varnishes – Distempers – Bitumens.
UNIT V MODERN MATERIALS 9
Glass – Ceramics – Sealants for joints – Fibre glass reinforced plastic – Clay products –
Refractories – Composite materials – Types – Applications of laminar composites – Fibre textiles
– Geomembranes and Geotextiles for earth reinforcement.

Strength of Materials

UNIT I ENERGY PRINCIPLES 9
Strain energy and strain energy density – strain energy due to axial load, shear, flexure and
torsion – Castigliano?s theorems – Maxwell?s reciprocal theorems – Principle of virtual work –
application of energy theorems for computing deflections in beams and trusses – Williot Mohr’s
Diagram.
UNIT II INDETERMINATE BEAMS 9
Concept of Analysis – Propped cantilever and fixed beams-fixed end moments and reactions –
Theorem of three moments – analysis of continuous beams – shear force and bending moment
diagrams.
UNIT III COLUMNS AND CYLINDER 9
Euler?s theory of long columns – critical loads for prismatic columns with different end conditions;
Rankine-Gordon formula for eccentrically loaded columns – Eccentrically loaded short columns –
middle third rule – core section – Thick cylinders – Compound cylinders.
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UNIT IV STATE OF STRESS IN THREE DIMENSIONS 9
Determination of principal stresses and principal planes – Volumetric strain –Theories of failure –
Principal stress – Principal strain – shear stress – Strain energy and distortion energy theories –
application in analysis of stress, load carrying capacity.
UNIT V ADVANCED TOPICS IN BENDING OF BEAMS 9
Unsymmetrical bending of beams of symmetrical and unsymmetrical sections – Shear Centre –
curved beams – Winkler Bach formula.

Applied Hydraulic Engineering

UNIT I UNIFORM FLOW 9
Definition and differences between pipe flow and open channel flow – Types of Flow – Properties of
open channel – Fundamental equations – Velocity distribution in open channel – Steady uniform
flow: Chezy equation, Manning equation – Best hydraulic sections for uniform flow – Computation
in Uniform Flow – Specific energy and specific force – Critical depth and velocity.
UNIT II GRADUALLY V ARIED FLOW 9
Dynamic equations of gradually varied and spatially varied flows – Water surface flow profile
classifications: Hydraulic Slope, Hydraulic Curve – Profile determination by Numerical method:
Direct step method and Standard step method, Graphical method – Applications.
UNIT III RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW 9
Application of the energy equation for RVF – Critical depth and velocity – Critical, Sub-critical and
Super-critical flow – Application of the momentum equation for RVF – Hydraulic jumps – Types –
Energy dissipation – Surges and surge through channel transitions.
UNIT IV TURBINES 9
Impact of Jet on vanes – Turbines – Classification – Reaction turbines – Francis turbine, Radial flow
turbines, draft tube and cavitation – Propeller and Kaplan turbines – Impulse turbine – Performance
of turbine – Specific speed – Runaway speed – Similarity laws.
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UNIT V PUMPS 9
Centrifugal pumps – Minimum speed to start the pump – NPSH – Cavitations in pumps – Operating
characteristics – Multistage pumps – Reciprocating pumps – Negative slip – Flow separation
conditions – Air vessels, indicator diagrams and its variations – Savings in work done – Rotary
pumps: Gear pump

Surveying 2

UNIT I CONTROL SURVEYING 9
Horizontal and vertical control – Methods – specifications – triangulation- baseline – instruments and
accessories – corrections – satellite stations – reduction to centre- trigonometrical levelling – single
and reciprocal observations – traversing – Gale?s table.
Errors Sources- precautions and corrections – classification of errors – true and most probable
values- weighed observations – method of equal shifts –principle of least squares -0 normal
equation – correlates- level nets- adjustment of simple triangulation networks.
UNIT III TOTAL STATION SURVEYING 9
Basic Principle – Classifications -Electro-optical system: Measuring principle, Working
principle, Sources of Error, Infrared and Laser Total Station instruments. Microwave system:
Measuring principle, working principle, Sources of Error, Microwave Total Station instruments.
Comparis on between Electro-optical and Microwave system. Care and maintenance of Total
Station instruments. Modern positioning systems – Traversing and Trilateration.
UNIT IV GPS SURVEYING 9
Basic Concepts – Different segments – space, control and user segments – satellite configuration –
signal structure – Orbit determination and representation – Anti Spoofing and Selective Availability
– Task of control segment – Hand Held and Geodetic receivers –data processing – Traversing and
triangulation.
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UNIT V ADVANCED TOPICS IN SURVEYING 9
Route Surveying – Reconnaissance – Route surveys for highways, railways and waterways –
Simple curves – Compound and reverse curves – Setting out Methods – Transition curves –
Functions and requirements – Setting out by offsets and angles – Vertical curves – Sight distanceshydrographic
surveying – Tides – MSL – Sounding methods – Three-point problem – Strength of fix
– Sextants and station pointer- Astronomical Surveying – field observations and determination of
Azimuth by altitude and hour angle methods – fundamentals of Photogrammetry and
Remote Sensing

SOIL MECHANICS

UNIT I SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND COMPACTION 9
Nature of soil – phase relationships – Soil description and classification for engineering purposes,
their significance – Index properties of soils – BIS Classification system – Soil compaction –
Theory, comparison of laboratory and field compaction methods – Factors influencing compaction
behaviour of soils.
UNIT II SOIL WATER AND WATER FLOW 9
Soil water – static pressure in water – Effective stress concepts in soils – capillary stress –
Permeability measurement in the laboratory and field pumping in pumping out tests – factors
influencing permeability of soils – Seepage – introduction to flow nets – Simple problems. (sheet
pile and weir).
UNIT III STRESS DISTRIBUTION AND SETTLEMENT 9
Stress distribution – soil media – Boussinesq theory – Use of Newmarks influence chart –
Components of settlement –– immediate and consolidation settlement – Terzaghi?s
onedimensional consolidation theory – computation of rate of settlement. – ?t and log t methods–
e-log p relationship – Factors influencing compression behaviour of soils.
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UNIT IV SHEAR STRENGTH 9
Shear strength of cohesive and cohesionless soils – Mohr – Coulomb failure theory –
Measurement of shear strength, direct shear – Triaxial compression, UCC and Vane shear tests –
Pore pressure parameters – cyclic mobility – Liquefaction.

UNIT V SLOPE STABILITY 9
Slope failure mechanisms – Types – infinite slopes – finite slopes – Total stress analysis for
saturated clay – Fellenius method – Friction circle method – Use of stability number – slope
protection measures.