# Anna University Semester 4 Electrical / Electronics engineering syllabus

**Anna University Semester 4 Electrical / Electronics engineering syllabus** – The fourth semester syllabus for Anna University Electrical Electronics engineering branch at the bachelors degree course level has an important electrical subject called Electrical Machines 1 that introduces us to machine theory and operation.A simple subject that involves maths is numerical techniques with formulae. A full theory subject is measurement and instrumentation.

Contents

## Anna University Semester 4 Electrical / Electronics engineering syllabus

## NUMERICAL METHODS

UNIT I SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS AND EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS 10+3

Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations – Fixed point iteration method – Newton Raphson

method- Solution of linear system of equations – Gauss elimination method – Pivoting – Gauss Jordan

method – Iterative methods of Gauss Jacobi and Gauss Seidel – Matrix Inversion by Gauss Jordan

method – Eigen values of a matrix by Power method.

UNIT II INTERPOLATION AND APPROXIMATION 8+3

Interpolation with unequal intervals – Lagrange’s interpolation – Newton’s divided difference

interpolation – Cubic Splines – Interpolation with equal intervals – Newton’s forward and backward

difference formulae.

UNIT III NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION 9+3

Approximation of derivatives using interpolation polynomials – Numerical integration using

Trapezoidal, Simpson’s 1/3 rule – Romberg’s method – Two point and three point Gaussian

quadrature formulae – Evaluation of double integrals by Trapezoidal and Simpson’s 1/3 rules.

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UNIT IV INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL

EQUATIONS 9+3

Single Step methods – Taylor’s series method – Euler’s method – Modified Euler’s method – Fourth

order Runge-Kutta method for solving first order equations – Multi step methods – Milne’s and AdamsBash

forth predictor corrector methods for solving first order equations.

UNIT V BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS IN ORDINARY AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL

EQUATIONS 9+3

Finite difference methods for solving two-point linear boundary value problems – Finite difference

techniques for the solution of two dimensional Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations on rectangular

domain – One dimensional heat flow equation by explicit and implicit (Crank Nicholson) methods –

One dimensional wave equation by explicit method.

## ELECTRICAL MACHINES – I

UNIT I MAGNETIC CIRCUITS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS 9

Magnetic circuits –Laws governing magnetic circuits – Flux linkage, Inductance and energy – Statically

and Dynamically induced EMF – Torque – Properties of magnetic materials, Hysterisis and Eddy

Current losses – AC excitation, introduction to permanent magnets-Transformer as a magnetically

coupled circuit.

UNIT II TRANSFORMERS 9

Construction – principle of operation – equivalent circuit parameters – phasor diagrams, losses –

testing – efficiency and voltage regulation-all day efficiency-Sumpner’s test, per unit representation –

inrush current – three phase transformers-connections – Scott Connection – Phasing of transformer–

parallel operation of three phase transformers-auto transformer – tap changing transformers- tertiary

winding.

UNIT III ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION AND CONCEPTS IN

ROTATING MACHINES 9

Energy in magnetic system – Field energy and coenergy-force and torque equations – singly and

multiply excited magnetic field systems-mmf of distributed windings – Winding Inductances-, magnetic

fields in rotating machines – rotating mmf waves – magnetic saturation and leakage fluxes.

UNIT IV DC GENERATORS 9

Construction and components of DC Machine – Principle of operation – Lap and wave windings-EMF

equations– circuit model – armature reaction –methods of excitation-commutation and interpoles –

compensating winding –characteristics of DC generators.

UNIT V DC MOTORS 9

Principle and operations – types of DC Motors – Speed Torque Characteristics of DC Motors-starting

and speed control of DC motors –Plugging, dynamic and regenerative braking- testing and efficiency

– Retardation test- Swinburne’s test and Hopkinson’s test – Permanent magnet dc motors(PMDC)-DC

Motor applications.

## OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING

UNIT I OVERVIEW 9

Why Object-Oriented Programming in C++ – Native Types and Statements –Functions and PointersImplementing

ADTs in the Base Language.

UNIT II BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF OOP 9

Data Hiding and Member Functions- Object Creation and Destruction- Polymorphism data

abstraction: Iterators and Containers.

UNIT III ADVANCED PROGRAMMING 9

Templates, Generic Programming, and STL-Inheritance-Exceptions-OOP Using C++.

UNIT IV OVERVIEW OF JAVA 9

Data types, variables and arrays, operators, control statements, classes, objects, methods –

Inheritance

UNIT V EXCEPTION HANDLING 9

Packages and Interfaces, Exception handling, Multithreaded programming, Strings, Input/Output

## TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

UNIT I STRUCTURE OF POWER SYSTEM 9

Structure of electric power system: generation, transmission and distribution; Types of AC and DC

distributors – distributed and concentrated loads – interconnection – EHVAC and HVDC transmission –

Introduction to FACTS.

UNIT II TRANSMISSION LINE PARAMETERS 9

Parameters of single and three phase transmission lines with single and double circuits – Resistance,

inductance and capacitance of solid, stranded and bundled conductors, Symmetrical and

unsymmetrical spacing and transposition – application of self and mutual GMD; skin and proximity

effects – interference with neighboring communication circuits – Typical configurations, conductor types

and electrical parameters of EHV lines, corona discharges.

UNIT III MODELLING AND PERFORMANCE OF TRANSMISSION LINES 9

Classification of lines – short line, medium line and long line – equivalent circuits, phasor diagram,

attenuation constant, phase constant, surge impedance; transmission efficiency and voltage

regulation, real and reactive power flow in lines, Power – circle diagrams, surge impedance loading,

methods of voltage control; Ferranti effect.

UNIT IV INSULATORS AND CABLES 9

Insulators – Types, voltage distribution in insulator string, improvement of string efficiency, testing of

insulators. Underground cables – Types of cables, Capacitance of Single-core cable, Grading of

cables, Power factor and heating of cables, Capacitance of 3- core belted cable, D.C cables.

UNIT V MECHANICAL DESIGN OF LINES AND GROUNDING 9

Mechanical design of transmission line – sag and tension calculations for different weather conditions,

Tower spotting, Types of towers, Substation Layout (AIS, GIS), Methods of grounding.

## DISCRETE TIME SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9

Classification of systems: Continuous, discrete, linear, causal, stable, dynamic, recursive, time

variance; classification of signals: continuous and discrete, energy and power; mathematical

representation of signals; spectral density; sampling techniques, quantization, quantization error,

Nyquist rate, aliasing effect.

UNIT II DISCRETE TIME SYSTEM ANALYSIS 9

Z-transform and its properties, inverse z-transforms; difference equation – Solution by ztransform,application

to discrete systems – Stability analysis, frequency response – Convolution –

Discrete TimeFourier transform , magnitude and phase representation.

UNIT III DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORM & COMPUTATION 9

Discrete Fourier Transform- properties, magnitude and phase representation – Computation of DFT

using FFT algorithm – DIT &DIF using radix 2 FFT – Butterfly structure.

UNIT IV DESIGN OF DIGITAL FILTERS 9

FIR & IIR filter realization – Parallel & cascade forms. FIR design: Windowing Techniques – Need and

choice of windows – Linear phase characteristics. Analog filter design – Butterworth and Chebyshev

approximations; IIR Filters, digital design using impulse invariant and bilinear transformation –

mWarping, pre warping.

UNIT V DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSORS 9

Introduction – Architecture – Features – Addressing Formats – Functional modes – Introduction to

Commercial DSProcessor

## MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION

UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9

Functional elements of an instrument – Static and dynamic characteristics – Errors in measurement –

Statistical evaluation of measurement data – Standards and calibration.

UNIT II ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTS 9

Principle and types of analog and digital voltmeters, ammeters, multimeters – Single and three phase

wattmeters and energy meters – Magnetic measurements – Determination of B-H curve and

measurements of iron loss – Instrument transformers – Instruments for measurement of frequency

and phase.

UNIT III COMPARISON METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS 9

D.C & A.C potentiometers, D.C & A.C bridges, transformer ratio bridges, self-balancing bridges.

Interference & screening – Multiple earth and earth loops – Electrostatic and electromagnetic

interference – Grounding techniques.

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UNIT IV STORAGE AND DISPLAY DEVICES 9

Magnetic disk and tape – Recorders, digital plotters and printers, CRT display, digital CRO, LED, LCD

& dot matrix display – Data Loggers.

UNIT V TRANSDUCERS AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS 9

Classification of transducers – Selection of transducers – Resistive, capacitive & inductive

transducers – Piezoelectric, Hall effect, optical and digital transducers – Elements of data acquisition

system – A/D, D/A converters – Smart sensors.