# Anna University Semester 4 Electrical / Electronics engineering syllabus

Anna University Semester 4 Electrical / Electronics engineering syllabus – The fourth semester syllabus for Anna University Electrical Electronics engineering branch at the bachelors degree course level has an important electrical subject called Electrical Machines 1 that introduces us to machine theory and operation.A simple subject that involves maths is numerical techniques with formulae. A full theory subject is measurement and instrumentation. ## NUMERICAL METHODS

UNIT I SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS AND EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS 10+3
Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations – Fixed point iteration method – Newton Raphson
method- Solution of linear system of equations – Gauss elimination method – Pivoting – Gauss Jordan
method – Iterative methods of Gauss Jacobi and Gauss Seidel – Matrix Inversion by Gauss Jordan
method – Eigen values of a matrix by Power method.
UNIT II INTERPOLATION AND APPROXIMATION 8+3
Interpolation with unequal intervals – Lagrange’s interpolation – Newton’s divided difference
interpolation – Cubic Splines – Interpolation with equal intervals – Newton’s forward and backward
difference formulae.
UNIT III NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION 9+3
Approximation of derivatives using interpolation polynomials – Numerical integration using
Trapezoidal, Simpson’s 1/3 rule – Romberg’s method – Two point and three point Gaussian
quadrature formulae – Evaluation of double integrals by Trapezoidal and Simpson’s 1/3 rules.
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UNIT IV INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS 9+3
Single Step methods – Taylor’s series method – Euler’s method – Modified Euler’s method – Fourth
order Runge-Kutta method for solving first order equations – Multi step methods – Milne’s and AdamsBash
forth predictor corrector methods for solving first order equations.
UNIT V BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS IN ORDINARY AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS 9+3
Finite difference methods for solving two-point linear boundary value problems – Finite difference
techniques for the solution of two dimensional Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations on rectangular
domain – One dimensional heat flow equation by explicit and implicit (Crank Nicholson) methods –
One dimensional wave equation by explicit method.

## ELECTRICAL MACHINES – I

UNIT I MAGNETIC CIRCUITS AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS 9
Magnetic circuits –Laws governing magnetic circuits – Flux linkage, Inductance and energy – Statically
and Dynamically induced EMF – Torque – Properties of magnetic materials, Hysterisis and Eddy
Current losses – AC excitation, introduction to permanent magnets-Transformer as a magnetically
coupled circuit.
UNIT II TRANSFORMERS 9
Construction – principle of operation – equivalent circuit parameters – phasor diagrams, losses –
testing – efficiency and voltage regulation-all day efficiency-Sumpner’s test, per unit representation –
inrush current – three phase transformers-connections – Scott Connection – Phasing of transformer–
parallel operation of three phase transformers-auto transformer – tap changing transformers- tertiary
winding.
UNIT III ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION AND CONCEPTS IN
ROTATING MACHINES 9
Energy in magnetic system – Field energy and coenergy-force and torque equations – singly and
multiply excited magnetic field systems-mmf of distributed windings – Winding Inductances-, magnetic
fields in rotating machines – rotating mmf waves – magnetic saturation and leakage fluxes.
UNIT IV DC GENERATORS 9
Construction and components of DC Machine – Principle of operation – Lap and wave windings-EMF
equations– circuit model – armature reaction –methods of excitation-commutation and interpoles –
compensating winding –characteristics of DC generators.
UNIT V DC MOTORS 9
Principle and operations – types of DC Motors – Speed Torque Characteristics of DC Motors-starting
and speed control of DC motors –Plugging, dynamic and regenerative braking- testing and efficiency
– Retardation test- Swinburne’s test and Hopkinson’s test – Permanent magnet dc motors(PMDC)-DC
Motor applications.

## OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING

UNIT I OVERVIEW 9
Why Object-Oriented Programming in C++ – Native Types and Statements –Functions and PointersImplementing
UNIT II BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF OOP 9
Data Hiding and Member Functions- Object Creation and Destruction- Polymorphism data
abstraction: Iterators and Containers.
Templates, Generic Programming, and STL-Inheritance-Exceptions-OOP Using C++.
UNIT IV OVERVIEW OF JAVA 9
Data types, variables and arrays, operators, control statements, classes, objects, methods –
Inheritance
UNIT V EXCEPTION HANDLING 9
Packages and Interfaces, Exception handling, Multithreaded programming, Strings, Input/Output

## TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

UNIT I STRUCTURE OF POWER SYSTEM 9
Structure of electric power system: generation, transmission and distribution; Types of AC and DC
distributors – distributed and concentrated loads – interconnection – EHVAC and HVDC transmission –
Introduction to FACTS.
UNIT II TRANSMISSION LINE PARAMETERS 9
Parameters of single and three phase transmission lines with single and double circuits – Resistance,
inductance and capacitance of solid, stranded and bundled conductors, Symmetrical and
unsymmetrical spacing and transposition – application of self and mutual GMD; skin and proximity
effects – interference with neighboring communication circuits – Typical configurations, conductor types
and electrical parameters of EHV lines, corona discharges.
UNIT III MODELLING AND PERFORMANCE OF TRANSMISSION LINES 9
Classification of lines – short line, medium line and long line – equivalent circuits, phasor diagram,
attenuation constant, phase constant, surge impedance; transmission efficiency and voltage
regulation, real and reactive power flow in lines, Power – circle diagrams, surge impedance loading,
methods of voltage control; Ferranti effect.
UNIT IV INSULATORS AND CABLES 9
Insulators – Types, voltage distribution in insulator string, improvement of string efficiency, testing of
insulators. Underground cables – Types of cables, Capacitance of Single-core cable, Grading of
cables, Power factor and heating of cables, Capacitance of 3- core belted cable, D.C cables.
UNIT V MECHANICAL DESIGN OF LINES AND GROUNDING 9
Mechanical design of transmission line – sag and tension calculations for different weather conditions,
Tower spotting, Types of towers, Substation Layout (AIS, GIS), Methods of grounding.

## DISCRETE TIME SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9
Classification of systems: Continuous, discrete, linear, causal, stable, dynamic, recursive, time
variance; classification of signals: continuous and discrete, energy and power; mathematical
representation of signals; spectral density; sampling techniques, quantization, quantization error,
Nyquist rate, aliasing effect.
UNIT II DISCRETE TIME SYSTEM ANALYSIS 9
Z-transform and its properties, inverse z-transforms; difference equation – Solution by ztransform,application
to discrete systems – Stability analysis, frequency response – Convolution –
Discrete TimeFourier transform , magnitude and phase representation.
UNIT III DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORM & COMPUTATION 9
Discrete Fourier Transform- properties, magnitude and phase representation – Computation of DFT
using FFT algorithm – DIT &DIF using radix 2 FFT – Butterfly structure.
UNIT IV DESIGN OF DIGITAL FILTERS 9
FIR & IIR filter realization – Parallel & cascade forms. FIR design: Windowing Techniques – Need and
choice of windows – Linear phase characteristics. Analog filter design – Butterworth and Chebyshev
approximations; IIR Filters, digital design using impulse invariant and bilinear transformation –
mWarping, pre warping.
UNIT V DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSORS 9
Introduction – Architecture – Features – Addressing Formats – Functional modes – Introduction to
Commercial DSProcessor

## MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION

UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9
Functional elements of an instrument – Static and dynamic characteristics – Errors in measurement –
Statistical evaluation of measurement data – Standards and calibration.
UNIT II ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTS 9
Principle and types of analog and digital voltmeters, ammeters, multimeters – Single and three phase
wattmeters and energy meters – Magnetic measurements – Determination of B-H curve and
measurements of iron loss – Instrument transformers – Instruments for measurement of frequency
and phase.
UNIT III COMPARISON METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS 9
D.C & A.C potentiometers, D.C & A.C bridges, transformer ratio bridges, self-balancing bridges.
Interference & screening – Multiple earth and earth loops – Electrostatic and electromagnetic
interference – Grounding techniques.
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UNIT IV STORAGE AND DISPLAY DEVICES 9
Magnetic disk and tape – Recorders, digital plotters and printers, CRT display, digital CRO, LED, LCD
& dot matrix display – Data Loggers.
UNIT V TRANSDUCERS AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS 9
Classification of transducers – Selection of transducers – Resistive, capacitive & inductive
transducers – Piezoelectric, Hall effect, optical and digital transducers – Elements of data acquisition
system – A/D, D/A converters – Smart sensors.