Automobile engineering Semester 7 Syllabus 2018

Automobile engineering Semester 7 Syllabus 2018 – The revised syllabus for Automobile engineering is for the year 2018 in semester 7 of Mumbai University.The main subjects are of core importance are are used heavily in the Automotive Industry.These subjects include Chasis,Product designing and Automotive design.Since it is the final year B.E therefore there is a project that needs to be completed.

 

 

Automobile engineering Semester 7 Syllabus 2018 Marks

Automobile engineering Semester 7 Syllabus 2018

Automobile engineering Semester 7 Syllabus 2018 Credits

Automobile engineering Semester 7 Syllabus 2018

Automobile engineering Semester 7 Syllabus 2018

Chassis and Body Engineering

Fundamental aspects of Vehicle Bodies
1.1 Chassis and structure types: Open, Semi integral and Integral bus
structure. Frames: functions and types of frames, Loads on frames,
Load distribution of structure.
1.2 Classification of motor vehicle, Location of power plant, Location
of different chassis components,
1.3 Terminology and overview of structural surface types, history and
Overview of structural types. Basic concept of design.
1.4 Vehicle body materials and their selection: Detail study of
materials used in vehicle body building (Steel sheet, timber, plastics,
FRP, GRP etc, properties of materials-Corrosion anticorrosion
methods, scalation of paint and painting process )
8
02
Vehicle body styles
2.1 Car Body Details: Types: Saloon, Convertibles, Limousine, Estate
van, racing and sports car.
Visibility: regulations, driver’s visibility, test for visibility, Methods of
improving visibility and space in cars.
Safety: safety design, safety equipments for car.
Car body construction, Front assembly, Roof Assembly, Under floor,
bonnet etc.
2.2 Bus Body Details: Types, mini bus, single Decker, double Decker,
two levels, split level and articulated bus.
Bus Body Lay Out: Floor height, engine location, entrance and exit
location, seating dimensions.
Constructional details: Frame construction, Double skin constructionTypes
of metal section used-Regulations-Conventional and Integral
type construction.
2.3Commercial Vehicle Body Details: Types of bodies, flat platform,
drop side, fixed side, tipper body, tanker body, light construction
vehicle body types, Dimensions of driver seat in relation to control,
Driver cabin design.
8
03
Vehicle Aerodynamics: Objectives, Vehicle drag and types, various
types of forces and moments, Effects of forces and moments, side wind
effects on forces and moments, various body optimization techniques
for minimum drag .Calculation of drag.
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
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Ergonomics and Preliminary Design
3.1 Design and requirement of Driver, Passenger and child seat.
3.2 Drawing of the preliminary design-Vehicle Body Weight Analysis,
Calculation of C.G for Vehicle, Vehicle Weight Distribution and
Master Model.
3.3 Overall Criteria for Vehicle Comparison: Design, Running costs,
Overall Design Efficiency.
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05
Body Loads
5.1 Loads on Vehicles: Bending, Torsion, Lateral and Braking and
Acceleration Load Cases, Shear Panel Method
5.2 Calculation of loading cases
Static loading case, Asymmetric loading case, Longitudinal loads,
Side Loads, Calculation of different cases.
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06
Strength of Vehicle Body Elements
6.1 Thin Walled Structures-General Principle, Torsion, Torsion centre,
Forces in End Load Carrying Members. Effect of Holes, Spot
welded joints.
6.2 Latest Trends in Design, Manufacturing and Materials.ULSAB
Design, Tailored blanks.
Manufacturing Process: Hydro forming tubular, Sheet Stamping

List of Experiments 1. Structural Analysis of Chassis Frame using CAD Software for different sections (Csection,
I-section, L-section, O-section, Hat section, Tubular section etc)
2. Mini Project: Containing a 3D Model of Chassis or Body or combination of both
(Min 2 Max 4 Students per Group)
3. Industrial Visit
Term Work
Term work shall consist of experiments from the list, 6 assignments based on complete
syllabus, industrial visit report and a mini project report
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:
? Laboratory work (Experiments) : 05 marks
? Mini project : 05 marks
? Assignment: 05 marks
? Industrial visit report: 05 marks
? Attendance (Theory and Practical) : 05 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.
Internal Assessment
Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on
minimum 40% of curriculum) and the other is either a class test (on minimum 70% of
curriculum) or assignment on live problems or course project.
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Practical/Oral examination
1. Practical examination duration is 2 hours.
2. Practical examination shall be based structural analysis and mini project mentioned in the
term work.
3. The distribution of marks for practical/oral examination shall be as follows:
i. Practical performance: 15 marks
ii. Oral: 10 marks
4. Evaluation of practical examination to be done based on the experiment performed and
the output of the experiments during practical examination.
5. Students work along with evaluation report to be preserved till the next examination

Theory Examination
In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of
respective lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.

References
1. John Fenton, “Vehicle Body Layout & Analysis”, Hutchinson, London.
2. J Powloski, “Vehicle Body Engineering”, Business Books Ltd., London.
3. J.G. Giles, “Body Construction and Design”, Vol. 6. llefe Books/Butterworth & Co.
London
4. P. L. Kohli, “Automotive Chassis & Body”, Papyrus Publishing House, New Delhi.
5. John Fenton, “Handbook of Automotive Body Construction and Design Analysis”
Professional Engineering Publishing.
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Course Code Course/Subject Name Credits

CAD/CAM/CAE

Computer Graphics and Techniques for Geometric Modeling
Computer Graphics: Two dimensional computer graphics, vector
generation, the windowing transformation, Three dimensional Computer
graphics, viewing transformation, Homogeneous coordinates, Perspective
projection, Hidden line removal & hidden surface removal algorithm,
light & shade ray tracing. The parametric representation of geometry,
Bezier curves, Cubic Spline curve, B-Spline curve, parametric
representation of line, circle, ellipse & parabola. Constructive solid
geometry (CSG), Boundary Representation (B-Rep), Wire Frame
Modeling, Solid Modeling, Surface Modeling, Parametric Modeling,
feature based modeling, Feature recognition, Design by feature.
08
02
Transformation, Manipulation & Data Storage
2D & 3D Transformations (Translation, Rotation, & Scaling &
Magnification), Concatenations, Matrix representation, Problems &
object oriented programming on Transformations. Object transformation,
mirror transformation, Artificial Intelligence in Design & Manufacturing,
Representation of Knowledge, and Knowledge base Engineering.
08
03
NC & CNC Technology
Tape coding & format, Manual Part Programming, Computer Aided Part
Programming, CNC functions & advantages, DNC, adaptive Control,
CNC programming concepts, Trends & new developments in NC, Part
programmers job, functions of a post processor, NC part programming
languages, Elements of a APT language, The Macro Statement in APT,
NC programming with interactive graphics. Constructional details of
CNC machines, Feed back devices- Velocity & displacement, Machining
Centers and its types, Automated Material Handling & storage Systems
like Robots, AGVs and AS/RS etc.
08
04
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)
Fundamentals of computer aided engineering,
CAE includes mass property calculations, kinematic analysis and
animation (movement, visualization, simulation and FEA). Case study
based on modeling and analysis of structural, thermal/fluid, and dynamic
(vibration analysis) system. Parameter optimization.
08
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
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Computer Integrated Manufacturing & Technology Driven Practices
Introduction, Evolution, Objectives, CIM Hardware and Software, CIM
Benefits, Nature and role of the elements of CIM, Identifying CIM needs,
Data base requirements of CIM, Role of CAD/CAM in CIM, Obstacles to
Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Concept of the future CIM systems,
Socio -techno- economic aspects of CIM.
08
06
Rapid Prototyping and Tooling
Introduction to RP, Technology Description, Overview of RP, Benefits
and Application. RP Processes: Process overviews, STL file Generation,
Classes of RP systems: Stereo-lithography Approach (SLA), SLA with
photo-polymerization (mathematical modelling of the process), SLA with
liquid thermal polymerization, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused
deposition modelling, Laminated object manufacturing, Laser powder
forming. Prototype properties: Material properties, colour, dimensional
accuracy, stability, surface finish, machinability, environmental
resistance, operational properties.
RP Applications: Design, Concept Models, Form & fit checking,
Functional testing, CAD data verification, Rapid Tooling, Rapid
manufacturing, Science & Medicine, RP processes for MEMS,
Photolithography, Direct Laser Writer, Bulk Lithography for 3D micro
fabrication (Modelling of beam propagation and curing in resin system).

List of Exercises
1. Programming for transformations,
2. Solid modeling using any 3D modeling software
3. Part programming and part fabrication on CNC trainer (Turning / Milling)
4. Geometrical optimization of any mechanical component using computer aided
engineering concepts.
5. Development of physical 3D mechanical structure using any one of the rapid
prototyping processes.
6. Rapid tooling for any one of the engineering or medical applications.
Term Work
Term work shall consist of any three exercises from the above list and a course project in a
group of not more than three (3) students on either computer aided engineering or rapid
prototyping and tooling
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:
? Exercises : 15 marks
? Course Project : 05 marks
? Attendance (Theory & Practical) : 05 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.

Internal Assessment
Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on minimum
40% of curriculum) and the other is either a class test (on minimum 70% of curriculum) or
assignment on live problems.
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)

Practical / Oral Examination
Practical examination of 2 hours duration based on any one of the following.
1) Programming for Algorithms, transformations.
2) Part Programming and machining of components.
3) 3D Modeling on software.
4) Analysis of component for optimization
The distribution of marks for practical/oral examination shall be as follows:
i. Practical performance: 15 marks
ii. Oral: 10 marks
Evaluation of practical examination to be done based on the experiment performed and the output
of the experiments during practical examination.
Students work along with evaluation report to be preserved till the next examination

Theory Examination
In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of
respective lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.

References
1. “CAD/CAM Computer Aided and Manufacturing” by Mikell P. Groover and Emory
W. Zimmers, Jr., Eastern Economy Edition
2. “CAD/ CAM , Theory & Practice” by Ibrahim Zeid, R. Sivasubramanian, Tata
McGraw Hill Publications
3. “Computer Graphics” by Donald Hearn and M. Pauline Baker, Eastern Economy
Edition
4. “CAD/CAM Principles, Practice and Manufacturing Management” by Chris
McMahon, Jimmie Browne, Pearson Education
5. “CAD/CAM/CIM” by P. Radhakrishan, S. Subramanyan, V. Raju, New Age
International Publishers
6. “CAD/CAM Principles and Applications” by P.N. Rao, Tata McGraw Hill
Publications
7. “Principle of Computer Graphics” by William .M. Neumann and Robert .F. Sproul,
McGraw Hill Book Co. Singapore.
8. David L. Goetsch, Fundamental of CIM technology ,Delmar publication
9. David Bedworth, Computer Integrated Design and Manufacturing, McGraw Hill.
10. “CNC Machines” by B.S. Pabla and M. Adithan, New Age International Publishers.
11. “Numerical Control and Computer Aided Manufacturing” , T.K. Kundra, P.N. Rao,
N.K. Tiwari, Tata McGraw Hill
12. “CNC Technology and Programming”, Krar, S., and Gill, A., McGraw Hill publishers
13. “Computer Integrated Manufacturing- An Introduction with Case Studies” by Paul G.
Ranky, Prentice Hall International
14. “Flexible Manufacturing Systems” by H.K. Shivanand, M.M. Benal, V.Koti, New Age
International Publishers
15. “Automation, Production Systems and Computer Integrated Manufacturing “, Groover
M.P., Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd
16. “Mathematical Elements for Computer Graphics”, Rogers D F I and Adams J A,
McGraw-Hill.
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
17. “Computer Integrated Manufacturing Hand Book” by Eric Teicholz, Joel N. Orr,
McGraw Hill International Editions
18. “Rapid Prototyping” Chee Kai ChuaWorld Scientific Publishing
19. “Rapid Prototyping:Principles and Applications” RafiqNoorani, Wiley
20. “Rapid Prototyping:Principles and Applications” C.K. Chua,K.F.Leong, C.S. Lim
World Scientific Publishing
21. “Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing” P. F. Jacobs, Society of Manufacturing
Engineers.
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Course Code Course /Subject Credits

Automotive Design

Design of Principal parts of I.C. Engines
1. Cylinder and cylinder liner- Material Selection, Design of cylinder
2. Piston, piston rings and piston pin or gudgeon pin- Material Selection,
Design considerations, Design calculations
3. Connecting rod with small and big end bearing-forces acting on
connecting rod, Design considerations, Design calculations
12
02
Design of Principal parts of I.C. Engines
1.Crank, crankshaft and crank pin
2. Cam shaft and Valve Operating mechanism.
08
03
Design of Clutches and Gear Boxes: single plate, multiple plates,
centrifugal clutch, lining material, lever design, sliding mesh, constant
mesh, synchromesh gear box, gear ratio and gear shifting lever, sliding
mechanism

Design of Drive train: Design of propeller shaft and U-joints, Design of
propeller shaft, criteria, failure theories-joint design, Design of Final
drive and differential
08
05
Brakes and Suspension: internal expanding shoe brake, friction lining
material, leaf spring, coil spring, materials, suspension system and
linkages, independent suspension
06
06 Advanced automotive Body Structures: Emphasis is on body concept
for design. Material selection and manufacturing constraints

Term Work
Term work shall consists of exercises on the above topics in the form of design calculations
with sketches and/ or drawings, Complete design and preparation of drawings for at least four
components using CAD Software and Analysis software, Class Assignments and course
project where a group of 3 or 4 students shall perform Stress analysis of any machine element
using any analysis software like ANSYS/MSC, NASTRAN etc. and submit report as term
work
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:
? Exercises/Assignment : 10 Marks
? Course Project : 10 Marks
? Attendance (Theory & Practical) : 05 Marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Note
Use of standard design data books like PSG data book, Mahadevan book is permitted at
the examination and shall be supplied by the college.

Internal Assessment
Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on minimum
40% of curriculum) and the other is either a class test (on minimum 70% of curriculum) or
assignment on live problems.
Oral examination
1. Oral examination shall be conducted based on term work and syllabus content
2. Examiners are expected to give small task or ask questions either to evaluate
understanding of basic fundamentals or to evaluate their capability of applying basic
theory to practical applications.

Theory Examination
In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of
respective lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.
References
1) Machine Design – Khurmi Gupta. S.Chand pub..
2) Design of machine elements — V. B. Bhandari. Tara Mcgraw Hill Pub.
3) Design of machine elements—Sharma, Purohit, Prentice Hall india publication
4) Machine Design by Pandya & shah, Charolar Publishing
5) Mechanical Engineering Design – J.E.Shiegly- McGraw hill
6) Recommended Design Data Books- PSG, Kalaikathir Achchagam Publishing
7) Recommended Design Data Books -Mahadevan,
8) Design of machine element – Spotts.
9) Design of machine element – V.M.Faires.
10) Machine Design – Black Adams- McGraw Hill
11) Machine Design – Rashetov- Mir Publication

Product Design & Development

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction to product design.
1.2 Classification/ Specifications of products.
1.3 Product life cycle & Product mix.
1.4 Modern product development process.
1.5 Innovative thinking.
1.6 Morphology of design (7 phases)
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02
2. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
2.1 Generation, selection & embodiment of concept.
2.2 Product architecture.
2.3 Significance of Industrial design process.
2.4 Introduction to Design Of Experiments (DOE) for Robust Design,
Taguchi Designs.
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03
3. DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY
3.1 Methods of designing for manufacturing & assembly.
3.2 Designs for maintainability.
3.3 Designs for environment.
3.4 Product costing.
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04
4. DESIGN METHODOLOGIES
4.1 Value engineering and Value analysis.
4.2 Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)
4.3 Concurrent engineering
4.4 Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
4.5 Reverse engineering
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05
5. DESIGN FACTORS
5.1 Ergonomics and Aesthetics.
5.2 Anthropometry.
5.3 Man-Machine interaction.
5.4 Concepts of size and texture, color
5.5 Comfort criteria.
5.6 Psychological & Physiological considerations.
5.7 Economic factors.
06
06
6. PRODUCT DESIGN NEEDS AND ISSUES IN INDUSTRY
6.1 Customer needs: types, models and collection of customer needs information,
analysis of information, Rapid prototyping, Tools for product design – Drafting /
Modeling software, CAM interface.
6.2 Creativity Techniques: Creative thinking, conceptualization,
Brain storming, primary design, drawing, simulation, detail design.
6.3 Legal and social issues. Engineering ethics and issues of society related to
design of products, Patents & IP Acts. Overview, Disclosure preparation.
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Term Work
Term work shall consists of minimum six assignments one from each module and Case
studies on product design and development
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:
? Exercises/Assignment : 10 Marks
? Case studies : 10 Marks
? Attendance (Theory & Practical) : 05 Marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.
Theory Examination
In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of
respective lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.
References
1. Karl T Ulrich, Steven D Eppinger, “Product Design & Development.”, Tata
McGraw-Hill New Delhi 2003.
2. David G Ullman, “The Mechanical Design Process.” McGrawhill Inc.
3. N J M Roozenberg, J Ekels, N F M Roozenberg “Product Design Fundamentals and
4. Methods”, John Willey & Sons 1995.
5. Hollins B & Pugh S “Successful Product Design.” Butterworths London.
6. Baldwin E. N. & Neibel B. W. “Designing for Production.”, Edwin Homewood
Illinois
7. Jones J. C. “Design Methods.” Seeds of Human Futures, John Willey New York.
8. Bralla J. G. “Handbook of Product Design for Manufacture, McGrawhill NewYork.
9. K. Chitale; R.C. Gupta, Product Design and Manufacturing, Prentice – Hall India.
10. Dieter George E., Engineering Design McGraw Hill Pub. Company, 2000.
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Course Code Course/Subject Name Credits

Power Plant Engineering

Introduction: Energy resources and their availability, types of power plants,
selection of the plants, review of basic thermodynamic cycles used in
power plants.
04
02
Hydro Electric Power Plants : Rainfall and run-off measurements and
plotting of various curves for estimating stream flow and size
of reservoir, power plants design, construction and operation of different
components of hydro-electric power plants, site selection, comparison with
other types of power plants.
06
03
Steam Power Plants: Flow sheet and working of modern-thermal power
plants, super critical pressure steam stations, site selection, coal storage,
preparation, coal handling systems, feeding and burning of pulverized fuel,
ash handling systems, dust collection-mechanical dust collector and
electrostatic precipitator.
08
04
Combined Cycles: Constant pressure gas turbine power plants,
Arrangements of combined plants (steam & gas turbine power plants), repowering
systems with gas production from coal,
using PFBC systems, with organic fluids, parameters affecting thermo
dynamic efficiency of combined cycles. Problems.
06
05
Nuclear Power Plants: Principles of nuclear energy, basic nuclear rea
ctions, nuclear reactorsPWR,
BWR, CANDU, Sodium graphite, fast breeder, homogeneous;
gas cooled. Advantages and limitations, nuclear power station, waste
disposal.
06
06
Power Plant Economics: Load curve, different terms and definitions,
cost of electrical
energy, tariffs methods of electrical energy, performance & operating
characteristics of power plants- incremental rate theory, input-out put
curves, efficiency, heat rate, economic load sharing, Problems.
06
List of Experiments
1. Case study report on at least two types of power plants
2. Group presentation (Group shall not be more than 3 students) on topics relevant to
syllabus
3. Industrial visit to any power plant
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Term Work
Term work shall consist of one case study report and 5 assignments covering maximum
syllabus
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:
? Case study: 05 marks
? Industrial visit report: 05 marks
? Presentation: 05 marks
? Assignments : 05 marks
? Attendance (Theory and Practical) : 05 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.
Internal Assessment
Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on
minimum 40% of curriculum) and the other is either a class test (on minimum 70% of
curriculum) or assignment on live problems or course project.

Theory Examination

In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of respective
lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.

References
1. Power Plant Engineering, A K Raja, Amit Praksh Shrivastava, Manish Dwivedi, New
Age International Publishers
2. Power Plant Familiarization, Manual of Central Training Resources Unit of NTPC
India, 1991
3. Power Plant Engineering, 2nd ed, P.K. Nag , Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Com., New
Delhi.
4. Hydro-Electric and Pumped Storage Plants, M G Jog, New Age International
Publishers
5. A Text Book of Power Plant Engineering, R.K. Rajput, Laxmi Publications
6. A Course in Power Plant Engineering, Arora, Domkundwar, DhanpatRai & Co.
7. Power Plant Engineering, P.C. Sharma, S.K. Kataria& Sons.
8. Power Plant Engineering, G.R. Nagpal, Khanna Publishers
9. Power station Engineering and Economy by Bernhardt G.A. Skrotzki and William A.
Vopat, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Campany Ltd., New Delhi
10. Nuclear Energy An Introduction to the Concepts, Systems and Applications of
Nuclear Processes, 6th Edition, Raymond L Murray, , ELSEVIER
11. Power Plant Engineering, Manoj Kumar Gupta, PHI Learning
12. Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, James Rust, Haralson Publishing Company
13. Nuclear Power Plants, Edited by Soon Heung Chang, InTech Publishers, 2012
Nuclear Power Plants, Geotge Petridis and DimitriosNicolau, NOVA Publishers

Supply Chain Management

01
Building a Strategic Frame Work to Analyse Supply Chains
Supply chain stages and decision phases, Process view of supply chain:
Supply chain flows, Examples of supply chains, Competitive and supply
chain strategies, Achieving strategic fit: Expanding strategic scope,
Drivers of supply chain performance. Framework for structuring drivers:
inventory, transportation facilities, information obstacles to achieving fit.
04
02
Designing the Supply Chain Network
Distribution Networking: Role, Design, Supply Chain
Network(SCN):Role, Factors, Framework for design decisions.
05
03
Materials Management
Scope, Importance, Classification of materials, Procurement, Purchasing
policies, Vendor development and evaluation. Inventory control systems
of stock replenishment, Cost elements, EOQ and its derivative modules.
06
04
Dimensions of Logistics
Introduction: A Macro and Micro Dimensions, Logistics interfaces with
other areas, Approach to analyzing logistics system, Logistics and
systems analyzing: Techniques of logistics system analysis, factors
affecting the cost and Importance of logistics.
06
05
Warehouse and Transport Management
Concept of strategic storage, Warehouse functionality, Warehouse
operating principles, Developing warehouse resources, Material handling
and packaging in warehouses, Transportation Management, Transport
functionality and principles, Transport infrastructure, transport economics
and Pricing. Transport decision making.
07
06
IT in Supply Chain
6.1 IT framework, Customer Relationship Management(CRM),internal
Supply chain management, Supplier Relationship Management (SRM)
and Transaction Management.Coordination in a Supply Chain
6.2 Lack of supply chain coordination and the Bullwhip effect, Obstacle
to Coordination, Managerial levers, Building partnerships and trust.
Emerging Trends and Issues
6.3 Vendor managed inventory-3PL-4PL, Reverse logistics: Reasons,
Role, Activities; RFID systems: Components, Applications,
Implementation; Lean supply chain, Implementation of Six Sigma in
supply chain, Green supply chain.
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University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Term Work
Term work shall consist of,

1. Assignments: On topics drawn from syllabus [At least 1 assignment per module].
2. Seminar / case study on the modules / trending scenario (current) in industry.
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows;
Seminar / Case study Presentation & report 10 marks
Assignments: 10 marks
Attendance (Theory and Practical): 05 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.

Internal Assessment
Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on
minimum 40% of curriculum) and the other is either a class test (on minimum 70% of
curriculum) or assignment on live problems or course project.

Theory Examination
In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of
respective lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.
References
1. Supply Chain Management Strategy, Planning, and operations, Sunil Chopra and
Peter Meindl
2. Materials Management & Purchasing, Ammer D.S. Taraporawala
3. Designing & Managing Supply chain, David Simchi Levi, Philip Kaminsky& Edith
Smichi Levi
4. Supply Chain Redesign: Transforming Supply Chains into Integrated Value Systems,
Robert B Handfield, Ernest L Nicholas
5. The Management of Business Logistics: A Supply Chain Perspective, Coyle, Bardi,
Langley

 Tribology 

Introduction to Tribology
Introduction to Tribology, Tribology in design, Tribology in industry,
economic aspects of Tribology, lubrication, basic modes of lubrication,
lubricants, properties of lubricants-physical and chemical, types of
additives, extreme pressure lubricants, recycling of used oils and oil
conservation, disposal of scrap oil, oil emulsion. Types of sliding contact
bearings, comparison of sliding and rolling contact bearings
06
2
Friction and Wear
Friction: Introduction, laws of friction, kinds of friction, causes of
friction, friction measurement, theories of friction, effect of surface
preparation.
Wear: Types of wear, various factors affecting wear, measurement of
wear, wear between solids and liquids, theories of wear.
06
3
Hydrodynamic lubrication
Theory of hydrodynamic lubrication, mechanism of pressure development
in oil film, two-dimensional Reynold„s equation, infinitely long journal
bearing, infinitely short journal bearing, finite bearing
Hydrodynamic thrust bearing: Introduction, flat plate thrust bearing,
pressure equation, load, center of pressure, friction in tilting pad thrust
bearing.
06
4
Hydrostatic Lubrication
Hydrostatic lubrication: Basic concept, advantages and limitations,
viscous flow through rectangular slot, load carrying capacity and flow
requirement of hydrostatic step bearing, energy losses, optimum design of
step bearing. Compensators and their actions.
Squeeze film lubrication: Introduction, circular and rectangular plates
approaching a plane.
06
5
Elasto-hydrodynamic Lubrication and Gas Lubrication
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication: Principle and application, pressureviscosity
term in Reynolds equation, Hertz theory. Ertel- Grubin Equation
Gas lubrication: Introduction, merits and demerits, applications.
Lubrication in metal working: Rolling, forging, drawing and extrusion.
Bearing materials, bearing constructions, oil seals, shields and gaskets
06
6
Surface Engineering
Introduction to surface engineering, concept and scope of surface
engineering, manufacturing of surface layers, solid surface geometrical,
mechanical and physic chemical concepts, superficial -layer, development
of concept, structure of superficial layer, general characteristics of
superficial layer, obtained by machining, strengthening and weakening of
superficial layer.
06
18
University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Term Work
Term work shall consist of at least one (1) assignment from each module and a case study or
seminar by each student.
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows;
? Assignments: 10 marks
? Seminar / Case study Presentation & report: 10 marks
? Attendance (Theory and Practical): 05 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.

Internal Assessment
Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on
minimum 40% of curriculum) and the other is either a class test (on minimum 70% of
curriculum) or assignment on live problems or course project.

Theory Examination
In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of
respective lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.
References
1. Cameron A., “Basic Lubrication Theory“, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
2. Shizhu Wen, “Principles of Tribology”, Wiley
3. Majumdar, “Introduction to Tribology and Bearings“, S.Chand and Company Ltd.
New Delhi
4. Fuller D. D., “Theory and Practice of Lubrication for Engineers“, John Wiley and
Sons
5. Halling J., “Principles of Tribology“, McMillan Press Ltd.
6.
7. B. Bhushan, B.K. Gupta, “Handbook of tribology: materials, coatings and surface
treatments”, McGraw-Hill
8. Davis J., “Surface Engineering for corrosion and Wear Resistance“, Woodhead
Publishing, 2001
9. Tadausz Burakowski, “Surface Engineering of Metals: Principles, Equipments,
Technologies”, Taylor and Francis

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Introduction: What is CFD, Scope and Application of CFD, Methods of
Predictions like Experimental and theoretical, Working of Commercial CFD
Softwares, Solution methodology-Preprocessing, Solver, Post processing.
04
02
Mathematical description of Physical Phenomenon: Governing
Differential Equations, Meaning of Differential equation, The Continuity
Equation, A Momentum equation, The Energy Equation, The General
Differential Equation, Boundary Conditions, Initial and Boundary
Conditions, Initial and Boundary Value problems
06
03
Grid Generation and Discretization Methods:
Structured and unstructured Grids: O-type, H-type, C-type of Structured Grid
Generation, Mesh Adaptation.
The Nature of Numerical Methods: The Discritization Concept, The
Structure of the Discritization Equation.
Methods of Deriving the Discretization Equations, Taylor-Series
Formulation, Variational Formulation, Method of Weighted Residuals,
Control Volume Formulation
08
04
Heat Conduction, Convection and Diffusion: Steady One-dimensional
Conduction, Unsteady One-dimensional Conduction, Two and Threedimensional
Situations, Over relaxation and Under relaxation, Steady Onedimensional
and Two Dimensional Convection-Diffusion, Unsteady Onedimensional
Convection
06
05
Incompressible Fluid Flow: Governing Equations, Stream FunctionVorticity
Method, Determination of Pressure for Viscous Flow, The
SIMPLE, SIMPLER Algorithm, Introduction to Turbulence Modeling, Basic
Theories of Turbulence, The Time-Averaged Equations for Turbulent Flow.
06
06
Finite Volume Methods: FVM solutions to steady one, two and three
dimensional diffusion problems and unsteady one and two dimensional
diffusionproblems, FVM solutions to convection-diffusion problems – one
and twodimensional, steady and unsteady; Advection schemes; Pressure
velocity coupling

List of Experiments
1. Simulate and solve, two problems, each 2-d and 3-d steady and unsteady flows using
any commercial CFD package like Ansys-FLUENT, STAR CCM, FLUIDYNE,
Ansys-CFX, etc.
2. Write codes for, at least one each, 1-d and 2-d steady conduction with and without
source and do the post processing to verify with analytical results
3. Write codes, at least one, for steady, 2-d conduction-advection problems and do the
post processing to verify with analytical results
20
University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Term Work
Term work shall consist of experiments from the list, 3 assignments covering maximum
portion of the syllabus.
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:
? Laboratory work (Experiments) : 15 marks
? Assignments : 05 marks
? Attendance (Theory and Practical) : 05 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.

Internal Assessment
Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on
minimum 40% of curriculum) and the other is either a class test (on minimum 70% of
curriculum) or assignment on live problems or course project.

Theory Examination
In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of
respective lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.
References
1. An introduction to computational fluid dynamics-The finite volume method,
Versteeg.H.K. , Malalasekera.W., Prentice Hall
2. Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Anderson, D.A., Tannehill, I.I.,
and Pletcher, R.H., Hemishphere Publishing Corporation, New York, USA, 1984.
3. Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics, Niyogi P. ,Laha M.K., Chakrabarty
S.K., Pearson Education, India.
4. Computational Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer, Muralidhar, K.,andSundararajan,T.,
Narosa Publishing House ,New Delhi1995.
5. Computer Simulation of flow and heat transfer, Ghoshdasdidar, P. S., Tata McGrawHill
Publishing Company Ltd., 1998.
6. Finite Element Programming of the Navier Stock Equation, Taylor, C and Hughes
J.B., Pineridge Press Ltd.U.K.1981.
7. Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics: Fundamental and General
Techniques, Fletcher, C.A.J., Springer-Verlag, 1987.
8. Numerical Fluid Dynamics, Bose, T. K., Narosa Publishing House, 1997.
21
University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Course Code Course/Subject Name Credits

Automotive Embedded System

Introduction
Body and convenience electronics, Vehicle power supply controllers and
lighting modules, Door control modules
Safety electronics: Active safety systems such as ABS, ASR& ESP etc.,
Passive safety systems such as restrained systems and their associated
sensor in an automobile.
Power train electronics :Petrol Engine Management,
Infotainment electronics: Dashboard /Instrument cluster, car audio,
telematics system, navigation system, multimedia systems etc.
Cross application technologies:42 volt vehicle power supply system
06
02
Embedded Communications
A Review of Embedded Automotive Protocols, Dependable Automotive
CAN Networks, Flex Ray Protocol
08
03
Drive By Wire
Challenges and opportunities of X by Wire: System and design
requirements steer by wire, brake by wire, suspension by wire, gas by
wire, power by wire, and shift by wire.
Future of automotive Electronics
06
04
Hardware Modules
MC9S12XD family features
Modes of operation: functional block diagram overview, Programming
model Map Overview Pulse width Modulator(PWM)
On chip ADC serial communication protocol: SCI,SPI,IIC,CAN
06
05
Software Developments Tools
Introduction to HCS12XDT512 Student learning kit & PBMCU(Project
board), Introduction to code warrior IDE: editing, debugging simulating
simple programs. Flashing code into HCS12XDT512 SLK board and
testing
06
06
Integration of Software and Hardware
Downloading the software from Host Machine to target Machine,
Implementing Application Prototype: Power windows and automotive
lighting system
04
22
University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Term Work
Term work shall consist of 6 assignments (One on each module) covering maximum portion
of the syllabus.
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:
? Assignments : 20 marks
? Attendance (Theory and Practical) : 05 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.
Internal Assessment
Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on
minimum 40% of curriculum) and the other is either a class test (on minimum 70% of
curriculum) or assignment on live problems or course project.

Theory Examination
In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of
respective lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.
References
1. Automotive Electronics By Tom H.Denton
2. Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems by John F. Kershaw, James D.
Halderman / Pearson Education
3. Automtive Embeded System Handbook by Nicolas Navet/CRC PRESS
4. Distributed Automotive Embeded System
5. Embeded System Handbook by Richard Zurawski
23
University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Course Code Course/Subject Name Credits
AEE 7016 Industrial Robotics 3+1
Objectives
1. To understand basic needs and requirements of robotics in industry.
2. To learn basic kinematics required in designing of robots.
3. To write and embed programs in robots.
Outcomes: Learner will be able to…
1. Appreciate the significance of robot in industry.
2. Design and make the robot for particular industrial problem.
Module Detailed Contents Hrs.
01
Fundamentals of Robotics
Introduction, Fundamentals of Robot Technology, Programming, and
Applications
Robot Technology: The Robot and its Peripherals
Control Systems and Components, Robot Motion Analysis and Control,
Robot End Effectors, Sensors in Robotics, Machine Vision
08
02
Kinematics of robotics.
Types of joints and motion, Basic of kinematics in robotics, Inverse
kinematics, Balancing of robots
06
03
Robot Programming and Languages
Robot Programming on microcontrollers., Robot Languages, Artificial
Intelligence
04
04
Robot Applications in Manufacturing
Application of robot in processing, assembly and inspection.
ASRS(Automatic storage and retrieval system), AGV(Automated guided
Vehicles)
06
05
Implementation Principles and Issues
Technical issues involved in implementing Robotics, its Safety, Training,
Maintenance and Quality
06
06
Social Issues and the Future of Robotics
Social and Labor Issues, Robotics Technology of the Future 06
Term Work
Term work shall consist of 6 assignments (one on each module) covering maximum portion
of the syllabus.
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:
? Assignments : 20 marks
? Attendance (Theory and Practical) : 05 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.
Internal Assessment
Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on
minimum 40% of curriculum) and the other is either a class test (on minimum 70% of
curriculum) or assignment on live problems or course project.
24
University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Theory Examination
In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of
respective lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.
References
1. Robert Shilling, Fundamentals of Robotics-Analysis and control, Prentice Hall of India
2. J.J, Craig, Introduction to Robotics, Pearson Education
3. Fu, Gonzales and Lee, Robotics, McGraw Hill
4. Curtis D. Johnson, Process Control Instrumentation Technology, PHI Publication, Eighth
Edition
5. Staughard, Robotics and AI, Prentice Hall of India
6. Grover, Wiess, Nagel, Oderey, Industrial Roboticsî, McGraw Hill
7. Walfram Stdder, Robotics and Mechatronics,
8. Niku, Introduction to Robotics, Pearson Education
9. Klafter, Chmielewski, Negin, Robot Engineering, Prentice Hall of India
10. Mittal, Nagrath, Robotics and Control, Tata McGraw Hill publications
11. George L Balten Jr., Programmable Controllers , Tata McGraw Hill publication
12. Handbook of Industrial Robotics: Ed. Shimon Y. Nof, John Wiley. ISBN: 9780471177838.
25
University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Course Code Course/Subject Name Credits

Transportation Management & Motor Industries 

1. Motor Vehicle Act
1.1 Short titles & definitions
1.2 Laws governing to use of motor vehicle & vehicle transport
1.3 Licensing of drivers & conductors
1.4 Registration of vehicle
1.5 State & interstate permits
1.6 Traffic rules, Signals & controls
1.7 Accidents, Causes & analysis
1.8 Liabilities & preventive measures
1.9 Rules & regulations
1.10 Responsibility of driver
1.11 Public & public authorities
1.12 Offences, penalties & procedures
1.13 Different types of forms
1.14 Government administration structure
1.15 Personnel, Authorities & duties
1.16 Rules regarding construction of motor vehicles
04
02
2. Taxation
2.1 Objectives
2.2 Structure & methods of laving taxation
2.3 One time tax
2.4 Tax exemption & tax renewal
08
03
3. Insurance
3.1 Insurance types & significance
3.1.1 Comprehensive
3.1.2 Third party insurance
3.2 Furnishing of particulars of vehicles involved in accident
3.3 MACT (Motor Accident Claims Tribunal)
3.4 Solatium Fund
3.5 Hit & Run case
3.6 Duty of driver in case of accident
3.7 Surveyor & Loss Assessor, Surveyor.s report
04
04
4. Passenger Transport Operation
4.1 Structure of passenger transport organizations
4.2 Typical depot layouts
4.3 Requirements and Problems on fleet management
4.4 Fleet maintenance
4.5 Planning – Scheduling operation & control
4.6 Personal & training-training for drivers & conductors
4.7 Public relations, Propaganda, publicity and passenger amenities
4.8 Parcel traffic.
08
26
University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
4.9 Theory of fares-Basic principles of fare charging
4.10 Differential rates for different types of services
4.11 Depreciation & debt charges
4.12 Operation cost and Revenues
4.13 Economics & records
05
5. Goods Transport Operation
5.1 Structure of goods transport organizations
5.2 Scheduling of goods transport
5.3 Management Information System (MIS) in passenger / goods
transport operation
5.4 Storage & transportation of petroleum products
06
06
6. Advance Techniques in Traffic Management
6.1 Traffic navigation
6.2 Global positioning system
06
List of Experiments
1. Organization & Management of Motor Vehicle Department
2. Collection & study of different types of RTO forms.
3. Central Motor Vehicle rules
4. Taxation, Insurance & Permits
5. Study of accidents claims & survey report including post accident procedure
6. Study of depot layouts (passenger & goods transport)
7. Case study of MIS in passenger / goods transports organization
8. Collection & study of goods transport records.
9. Study of vehicle navigation system
10. Advanced traffic control devices
Term Work
Term work shall consist of 8 experiments from the list, 6 assignments (One on each module)
covering maximum portion of the syllabus.
The distribution of marks for term work shall be as follows:
? Laboratory work (Experiments) : 10 marks
? Assignments : 10 marks
? Attendance (Theory and Practical) : 05 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and minimum passing in the term work.
Internal Assessment
Assessment consists of two tests out of which; one should be compulsory class test (on
minimum 40% of curriculum) and the other is either a class test (on minimum 70% of
curriculum) or assignment on live problems or course project.
27
University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Theory Examination
In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to number of
respective lecture hours as mention in the syllabus.
1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
2. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum contents of the
syllabus
3. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature (for example, if Q.2 has part (a) from
module 3 then part (b) will be from other than module 3)
4. Total four questions need to be solved.
References
1. Motor Vehicle Act – Governmment of India Publications
2. Economics of Transport, S.K. Shrivastava
3. Transport Development in India, S. Chand & Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
28
University of Mumbai, Automobile Engineering (Third and Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012)
Course Code Course/Subject Name Credits
AEP701 / AEP802 Project I/ II 3 / 6
Objective
1. To acquaint with the process of undertaking literature survey/industrial visit and
identifying the problem
2. To familiarize the process of solving the problem in a group
3. To acquaint with the process of applying basic engineering fundamental in the domain
of practical applications
4. To inculcate the process of research
Outcome: Learner will be able to…
1. Do literature survey/industrial visit and identify the problem
2. Apply basic engineering fundamental in the domain of practical applications
3. Cultivate the habit of working in a team
4. Attempt a problem solution in a right approach
5. Correlate the theoretical and experimental/simulations results and draw the proper
inferences
6. Prepare report as per the standard guidelines.
Guidelines for Project
o Students should do literature survey/visit industry/analyze current trends and
identify the problem for Project and finalize in consultation with Guide/Supervisor.
Students should use multiple literatures and understand the problem.
o Students should attempt solution to the problem by experimental/simulation
methods.
o The solution to be validated with proper justification and report to be compiled in
standard format.
Guidelines for Assessment of Project I
o Project I should be assessed based on following points
? Quality of problem selected
? Clarity of Problem definition and Feasibility of problem solution
? Relevance to the specialization
? Clarity of objective and scope
? Breadth and depth of literature survey
o Project I should be assessed through a presentation by the student project group to
a panel of Internal examiners appointed by the Head of the Department/Institute of
respective Programme.
Guidelines for Assessment of Project II
o Project II should be assessed based on following points
? Quality of problem selected
? Clarity of Problem definition and Feasibility of problem solution
? Relevance to the specialization / Industrial trends
? Clarity of objective and scope
? Quality of work attempted
? Validation of results
? Quality of Written and Oral Presentation
o Report should be prepared as per the guidelines issued by the University of
Mumbai.
o Project II should be assessed through a presentation by the student project group to
a panel of Internal and External Examiners approved by the University of Mumbai
o Students should be motivated to publish a paper based on the work in
Conferences/students competitions
29