# Biomedical engineering Semester 6 Syllabus 2018

**Biomedical engineering Semester 6 Syllabus 2018** – The Mumbai University Syllabus for Semester 6 of Biomedical Engineering in 2018 has the main subjects of Bio statistics, Biological Modelling and Simulation, Biomedical Instrumentation 2 , Micro controllers and embedded systems and Digital Image Processing.

Contents

## Biomedical engineering Semester 6 Syllabus 2018

## Biomedical Instrumentation-II

1. Generation of Bioelectric Potentials:

Basic cell physiology, Nerve, Muscle, Pacemaker and Cardiac muscle

2. Biophysical signal capture, processing and recording systems (with technical

specifications):

Typical medical recording system and general design consideration. Sources of noise

in low level recording circuits and their removal techniques. ECG, EMG, EEG,

Electrode placement and Measuring techniques for EOG, ERG and

Phonocardiography. Measurement of skin resistance.

Biofeedback Technique: EEG, EMG

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3. Patient Monitoring System:

Measurement of Heart Rate, Pulse rate, Blood pressure, Temperature and Respiration

rate, Apnea Detector.

Electrical Safety in Biophysical Measurements.

Heart rate variability measurement and applications.

4. Arrhythmia and Ambulatory Monitoring Instruments:

Cardiac Arrhythmias, waveforms and interpretation from them.

Stress test measurement.

University of Mumbai Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2012-13 Page 4

Ambulatory monitoring instruments-Holter monitor

Point of care devices and their design considerations for homecare devices:

glucometer (kidney function), disposable lung function test.

5. Foetal and Neonatal Monitoring System:

Cardiotocograph, Methods of monitoring of Foetal Heart rate , Incubator and Infant

warmer. Non stress test monitoring.

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6. Biotelemetry, Telemedicine concepts and its application

**Text books:**

1. Handbook of Biomedical Engineering by R.S. Khandpur, PHI

2. Medical Instrumentation, Application and Design by J.G. Webster, TMH.

3. Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology by Carr.-Brown (Pearson

Education Pub)

4. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering by J Bronzino

**Reference Books:**

1. Encyclopaedia of medical devices and instrumentation – J.G. Webster Vol I, II, III, IV

(John Willey).

2. Principles of applied Biomedical Instrumentation by Geddes and Becker, Wiley

interscience publication.

3. Principles of Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurement by Richard Aston

4. Various Instruments Manuals.

5. Various internet resources.

**Internal Assessment (IA):**

Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks

of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.

End Semester Examination:

Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

The students need to solve total 4 questions.

Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.

Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.

**Term Work:**

Term work consists of minimum eight experiments. The distribution of the term work shall be as

follows:

Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal) :15 marks

Attendance (Practical and Theory) :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and completion of journal. Term work assessment must be based on the overall

performance of the student.

## Biostatistics

1. Descriptive statistics and probability

Frequency distribution, Measures of central tendency, Measures of dispersion

Basic probability and Bayes theorem.

04

2. Probability and Sampling Distributions

Discrete probability distributions

Continuous probability distributions – Binomial, poisson and normal distributions

Sampling distributions – sample mean, difference between two sample means,

sample proportions, difference between two sample proportions

10

3. Estimation

t- distribution

Confidence intervals for – population mean, difference between two population

means, population proportion, difference between two population proportions,

variance of normally distributed population, ratio of variances of two normally

distributed populations

Determination of sample size for estimating mean and proportions

07

4. Hypothesis testing

Hypothesis testing for – Population mean, difference between two population means,

population proportions, difference between two population proportions, population

variance, ratio of two population variances

Type – I and II error and power of test

07

5. Analysis of variance

Completely randomized design, Randomized complete block design, repeated

measures design, factorial experiment.

Regression and Correlation

Simple linear regression, correlation model, correlation coefficient, multiple

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regression, multiple correlation

6. Chi square distribution and analysis of frequency

Chi-square distribution – properties

Test of goodness of fit, independence and homogeneity

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List of Tutorials:

1. Descriptive statistics and probability

2. Discrete probability distributions

3. Continuous probability distributions

4. Sampling distributions

5. Estimation

6. Hypothesis testing

7. Analysis of variance

8. Regression and Correlation

9. Chi square distribution and analysis of frequency

Text books:

1. Biostatistics – A foundation for analysis in health sciences by Wayne W. Daniel, Seventh

edition, Wiley India

2. Fundamentals of mathematical statistics by S. C. Gupta and V. K. Kapoor, second

edition, Sultan Chand Publisher

3. Probability and statistics for engineers by J. Ravichandran, Wiley /india

4. Biostatistics – How it works by Steve selvin, Pearson education

5. An Introduction to Biostatistics by Sunder Rao and J. Richard, Third Edition, Prentice

Hall of India

6. Probability and Statistics by Schaum’s series

**Internal Assessment (IA):**

Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks

of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.

End Semester Examination:

Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

The students need to solve total 4 questions.

Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.

Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.

**Term Work:**

At least 08 tutorials covering entire syllabus must be given during the ‘class wise tutorial’. The

tutorials should be students’ centric and meaningful, interesting and innovative.

The distribution of the term work shall be as follows,

Tutorials :15 marks

Attendance (Tutorial and Theory) :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance in

tutorial. Term work assessment must be based on the overall performance of the student.

## Biological Modeling and Simulation

1. Physiological Modeling: Steps in Modeling, Purpose of Modeling, lumped

parameter models, distributed parameter models, compartmental modeling, modeling

of circulatory system, regulation of cardiac output and respiratory system.

04

2. Model of Neurons: Biophysics tools, Nernst Equation, Donnan Equilibrium, Active

Transport ( Pump) GHK equation, Action Potential, Voltage Clamp, Channel

Characteristics, Hodgkin- Huxley Conductance Equations, Simulation of action

potential, Electrical Equivalent model of a biological membrane, impulse

propagation- core conductor model , cable equations.

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3. Neuromuscular System: modeling of skeletal muscle, mono and polysynaptic

reflexes, stretch reflex, reciprocal innervations, two control mechanism, Golgi

tendon, experimental validation, Parkinson’s syndrome.

06

4. Eye Movement Model: Four eye movements, quantitative eye movement models,

validity criteria.

06

5. Thermo regulatory systems: Thermoregulatory mechanisms, model of

thermoregulatory system, controller model, validation and application.

03

6. Modelling of other physiological systems.

Modelling the Immune response: Behavior of the immune system, linearized model

of the immune response.

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University of Mumbai Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2012-13 Page 8

Modelling of Drug delivery systems.

Modelling of Insulin Glucose feedback system and Pulsatile Insulin secretion

List of Experiments/Assignments:

Experiments can be carried out using any of these softwares.

1. Simulations using MATLAB

2. Simulations using HHSim

3. Simulations using Neurons in Action

4. Developing a model of neuron using NEURON

Text books:

1. Bioengineering, Biomedical, Medical and Clinical Engg.: A.Teri Bahil.

2. Signals and systems in Biomedical Engg.: Suresh R Devasahayam.

3. Bio-Electricity A quantitative approach by Barr and Ploncey

Reference Books:

1. Biomedical Engineering Handbook by Bronzino (CRC Press)

Internal Assessment (IA):

Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks

of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.

**End Semester Examination:**

Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

The students need to solve total 4 questions.

Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.

Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.

**Term Work:**

Term work consists of minimum six experiments and two assignments. The distribution of the

term work shall be as follows:

Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal) :15 marks

Attendance (Practical and Theory) :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and completion of journal. Term work assessment must be based on the overall

performance of the student.

## Microcontrollers and Embedded Systems

1. Embedded Systems

Definition of embedded systems, overview of embedded systems and its

classification, design challenges, processor technology, IC technology, design

technology and tradeoffs, examples of embedded systems

04

2. MCS-51 Microcontroller

8051 architecture ; its variants and comparision, comparision of microprocessor and

microcontrollers, CPU timing and machine cycle, memory organisation, SFR’s,

integrated prepherials such as timers/counters, serial ports, parallel I/O ports,

interrupt structure, memory interfacing power saving and power down modes.

10

3. 8051programming

Assembly language programming process, programming tools, Instruction set in

detail and addressing modes, Programming practice using assembly and C compilers

12

4. Microcontroller design and interfacing case studies

Interfacing with external memories, Interfacing with 8255, Interfacing with 7

segment display, Interfacing with keyboard, interfacing with LCD, Interfacing with

ADC,DAC and Sensors, Interfacing with stepper motor

Interfacing with PC using RS232

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5. Serial Communication Protocols

Operation of serial port, programming for asynchronous serial communication, Serial

Communication using the ‘I2C’, SPI, Introduction to USB & CAN bus.

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University of Mumbai Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2012-13 Page 10

6. Real time operating system

Introduction to RTOS concept, RTOS scheduling models interrupt latency and

response times of the tasks as performance metric. Example of any small RTOS

system

**Text books:**

1.The 8051 microcontrollers-Kenneth J Ayala

2.Embedded systems-architecture, programming and design, Rajkamal, Tata

McGraw Hill

3.Embedded System Design: A unified Hardware/Software Introduction Frank Vahid,Toney

Givargis- John Wiley publication

3.An Embedded Software Primer David E. Simon – Pearson Education

4.The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems Muhammad A Mazidi, , Pearson Education

5.Using MCS-51 Microcontroller Han-Way Huang,.

6. 8051 microcontroller hardware, software applications.V U dayashankara, M S

Mallikarjunaswamy,

**Reference Books**:

1. Sriram Iyer and Pankaj Gupta, Embedded Realtime systems programming,

Tata McGraw Hill

2. Embedded Microcomputer Systems- Real time Interfacing -Valvano

Internal Assessment (IA):

Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks

of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.

End Semester Examination:

Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

The students need to solve total 4 questions.

Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.

Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.

Oral Examination:

Oral examination will be based entire syllabus and on the course-project.

**Term Work:**

Term work consists of minimum five experiments and a course – project based on the syllabus.

The distribution of the term work shall be as follows:

Laboratory work (Experiments, course – project and Journal) :15 marks

Attendance (Practical and Theory) :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and completion of journal. Term work assessment must be based on the overall

performance of the student.

## Medical Imaging-I

1. Ultrasound in Medicine:

Introduction , Production and Characteristics of Ultrasound

Display System : A mode ,B mode and M mode display and applications.

Ultrasound transducers and Instrumentation.

Real time Ultrasound ,Continuous wave and Pulsed wave Doppler

Ultrasound systems, color flow imaging,applications.

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2. X- ray Imaging:

Properties of X rays,production of X rays, X ray interaction with matter .

Total radiographic System : X –ray tubes, Rating of X ray tubes.

X –ray generators, X ray Image and beam Limiting Deices, Controls, X ray Film

Development Technique.

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3. Flouroscopic Imaging and x ray Image Intensifier Digital subtraction

Angiography

06

4. Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography ,Mammography 10

5. Medical Thermography: Physics of thermgraphy, Thermographic equipment,

applications.

04

6. Endoscopy : Equipment , Imaging and its applications 04

University of Mumbai Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2012-13 Page 12

** Text books:**

1. Christensen’s Physics of Diagnostic Radiology

2. Medical Imaging Physics William .R.Hendee

Reference Books:

1. Biomedical Technology and Devices by James Moore .

2. Biomedical Engineering Handbook by Bronzino

3. Physics of Diagnostic images –Dowsett

**Internal Assessment (IA):**

Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks

of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.

End Semester Examination:

1. Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

2. The students need to solve total 4 questions.

3. Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.

4. Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.

Term Work:

Term work consists of minimum eight experiments. The distribution of the term work shall be as

follows:

Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal) :15 marks

Attendance (Practical and Theory) :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and completion of journal. Term work assessment must be based on the overall

performance of the student.

## Digital Image Processing

1. Basics of Image Processing: Image acquisition, Processing, Communication,

Display; Electromagnetic spectrum; Elements of visual perception – Structure of the

human eye, Image formation in the eye, Brightness adaptation and discrimination,

Image formation model, Uniform and non-uniform sampling, Quantization, Image

formats.

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2. Image Enhancement: Spatial domain – Point processing techniques, Histogram

processing, Neighbourhood processing, Frequency domain techniques – 2D-DFT,

Properties of 2D-DFT, Low pass, High pass, Noise removal, Homomorphic filters,

Basics of colour image processing.

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3. Image Segmentation: Basic relationships between pixels – Neighbours, Adjacency,

Connectivity, Regions, Boundaries, Distance measures; Detection of discontinuities,

Point, Line, Edge detection, Edge linking, Hough transform, Thresholding-based

segmentation, Region-based segmentation.

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4. Image Transforms: DFT, FFT, DCT, DST, Hadamard, Walsh, Haar, Slant, K-L

Transforms, Basis functions and basis images, Introduction to wavelet transform.

08

5. Image Compression: Fundamentals of image compression models, Lossless

compression – RLE, Huffman, LZW, Arithmetic coding techniques. Lossy

compression – IGS coding, Predictive coding, Transform coding, JPEG, JPEG 2000.

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6. Morphology, Representation and Description: Dilation, Erosion, Open, Close, Hitor-miss,

Boundary extraction, Region filling, Thinning and thickening;

Chain Codes, Polygonal approximations, Signatures;

Fourier descriptors, Moments.

List of Experiments (using Matlab / C/ Labview/ similar software)

1. Point Processing techniques (At least 4 experiments).

2. Spatial domain Filtering.

3. Histogram Processing (Histogram Stretching and Equalisation).

4. Frequency Domain Filtering (Plotting 2D-DFT, Low pass and High Pass- Ideal,

Butterworth and Gaussian Filters).

5. Segmentation-Gradient operators.

6. Transforms-DCT.

7. Morphology-Dilation Erosion.

**Text books:**

1. Digital Image Processing, Gonzalez and Woods- Pearson Education.

2. Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, A.K. Jain –P.H.I.

3. Digital Image Processing and Analysis, Chanda Majumder-Printice Hall India.

Reference Books:

1. Digital Image Processing and Computer Vision, Sonka, Hlavac, Boyle-Cengage learning.

2. Digital Image Processing, William Pratt- John Wiley.

Internal Assessment (IA):

Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks

of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.

End Semester Examination:

Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.

The students need to solve total 4 questions.

Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.

Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.

University of Mumbai Biomedical Engineering, Rev 2012-13 Page 15

**Term Work:**

Term work consists of minimum eight experiments. The distribution of the term work shall be as

follows:

Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal) :15 marks

Attendance (Practical and Theory) :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and completion of journal. Term work assessment must be based on the overall

performance of the student.