Biomedical Engineering Semester 7 Syllabus 2018

Biomedical Engineering Semester 7 Syllabus 2018 – The Seventh 7th Semester Syllabus for 2018 in the Mumbai University for Biomedical Engineering has a credit based marks.the core subjects in this final year B.E are Biomedical Instrumentation, Medical Imaging,bio mechanics prosthesis and Orthosis. Since it is the final year there will also be a project that is divided into two stages.

 

 

Biomedical Engineering Semester 7 Syllabus

 

 

Biomedical Instrumentation-III

 

1. Physiotherapy, Electrotherapy Equipments: Basic principle, working and
technical specifications of Shortwave Diathermy, Ultrasonic therapy unit, Infrared
and UV lamps, Nerve and Muscle Stimulator.

2. Surgical Instruments: Surgical Diathermy machine, electrodes used with surgical
diathermy, safety aspects in electronic surgical units, surgical diathermy analyzers.

3. Cardiac Pacemakers: Modes of operation, leads and electrodes. Power supply
sources. External and Implantable Pacemaker, Performance aspects of Implantable Pacemaker.

4. Cardiac Defibrillators: DC defibrillator, Modes of operation and electrodes,
Performance aspects of dc-defibrillator, defibrillator analyzers. Implantable defibrillator and defibrillator analyzer.

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering (Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012) 4
5. Hemodialysis Machine: Basic principle of Dialysis and its type. Different types of
dialyzer membrane, Portable type. Various monitoring circuits.
4
6. Laser Applications in Biomedical Engineering
Laser classifications, Types of Lasers, Medical Applications, Laser delivery Systems
and safety.

Text books:
1. Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation: R S. Khandpur. (PH Pub)
2. Medical Instrumentation, Application and Design: J G. Webster. (John Wiley)
3. Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology: Carr –Brown. (PH Pub)
Reference Books:
1. Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation: J G. Webster. Vol I, II, III, IV
(PH Pub)
2. Various Instruments Manuals.
3. Various internet resources.
Internal Assessment (IA):
Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks
of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.
End Semester Examination:
Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
The students need to solve total 4 questions.
Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.
Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.

Term Work:
Term work consists of minimum eight experiments. The distribution of the term work shall be as
follows:
Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal) :15 marks
Attendance (Practical and Theory) :10 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and completion of journal. Term work assessment must be based on the overall
performance of the student.

 Medical Imaging-II

1. Principle of Computed tomography
Scanner configurations/generations, CT system: Scanning unit(gantry), detectors,
data acquisition system, spiral CT, scanner parameters, CT Number Reconstruction
techniques, Radon Transform, Filtered Back projection, Fourier Reconstruction
Technique, Iterative
reconstruction Technique, Image quality and artifacts, Clinical applications of CT

2. Advancements in CT
Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), Flat panel detectors
CT-Angiography contrast agents in CT
06
3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance:
Physics of MRI, Relaxation Parameters and Spin Echoes, Magnetic Field Gradients,
Slice selection and Frequency Encoding
06
4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Hardware: Magnets, Gradient systems, RF coils, Fourier Reconstruction techniques,
Image contrast, Resolution and Factors affecting signal-to-noise. Safety
Considerations/Biological Effects of MRI

5. Pulse sequences in MRI,Contrst agents MR Angiography,Perfusion MRI, Clinical
applications
08
University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering (Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012) 6
6. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)
Basic Principle of MRS and localization techniques, Chemical Shift Imaging, Singlevoxel
and Multivoxel MRS, Water Suppression techniques

Text books:
1. Physics of Diagnostic Radiology :Christensen
2. Medical Imaging Physics William .R.Hendee
Reference Books:
1. Biomedical Technology and Devices by James Moore .
2. Biomedical Engineering Handbook by Bronzino
3. Physics of Diagnostic images –Dowsett

Internal Assessment (IA):
Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks
of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.
End Semester Examination:
Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
The students need to solve total 4 questions.
Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.
Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.

Term Work:
Term work consists of minimum eight experiments. The distribution of the term work shall be as
follows:
Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal) :15 marks
Attendance (Practical and Theory) :10 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and completion of journal. Term work assessment must be based on the overall
performance of the student.

Biomechanics Prosthesis and Orthosis

BIOMECHANICS
1. Force system:
Classification of force system. Equilibrium of force system.
02
2. Tissue Biomechanics:
Direct shear, bending and torque actions and the corresponding stresses and strains in
biological tissues. Stress relaxation and creep. Bone structure & composition,
Mechanical properties of bone, Fracture mechanism & crack propagation in bones.
Soft connective (skin, tendon, ligaments, etc.) covering structure function, and
physiological factors.
12
3. Movement Biomechanics:
Study of joints and movements. Anatomical levers, Gait Analysis.
08
4. Joint analysis:
Instrumentation for gait analysis: Measurement devices-footswitches, instrumented
walkway, Motion analysis- interrupted light photography, film/video, Selspot,
Goniometers.
07
University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering (Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012) 8
PROSTHETICS AND ORTHOTICS
5. Principles in designing orthoses and prostheses:
Principles of three point pressure, total contact, partial weight bearing.
06
6. Classification in prosthetics and orthotics: Lower Extremity orthoses and
prostheses, Upper Extremity orthoses and prostheses. Spinal orthoses.

List of Experiments:
1. To study the concurrent coplanar force system.
2. To study the Stress – Strain relation of Mild steel
3. To study the Classification of the human bones
4. To study different types of joints in human body and joint movements
5. To study the Classification of Muscles
6. To simulate elbow joint using bell crank lever.
7. To study the human gait cycle
8. To study the Gait Cycle Parameters
9. Fabrication of PTB/socket.
The concerned teachers of the subject BPO can arrange the visit in rehabilitation centre.

Text books:
1. Basic Biomechanics- Susan J. Hall, MC Graw Hill.
2. Basics of Biomechanics” by Dr. Ajay Bahl and others
3. Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System,M. Nordin, V.Frankel
4. Human Limbs and their substitutes – Atlas, C. V. Mosby
5. American Atlas of Orthopedics: Prosthetics, C. V. Mosby.
6. American Atlas of Orthopedics: Orthotics, C. V. Mosby
7. Biomechanics – Prof Ghista (Private Publication UAE)
8. Biomechanics – By White and Puyator (Private Publication UAE)

Reference Books:
1.Introductory Biomechanics: from cells to tissues by Ethier and Simmons
2.Biomechanics: Mechanical properties of living tissues by Y. C. Fung
Internal Assessment (IA):
Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks
of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.
End Semester Examination:
Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
The students need to solve total 4 questions.
Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.
Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering (Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012) 9
Term Work:
Term work consists of minimum eight experiments. The distribution of the term work shall be as
follows:
Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal) :15 marks
Attendance (Practical and Theory) :10 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and completion of journal. Term work assessment must be based on the overall
performance of the student.

Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits

1. Introduction to VHDL hardware description language, core features of VHDL, data
types, concurrent and sequential statements, data flow, behavioral, structural
architecture. Architecture of Xilinx XC4000 FPGA family

2. Combinational and Sequential Logic design using VHDL .Using VHDL
combinational circuit design examples- multipliers, decoders and encoders,
cascading comparator. VHDL sequential circuit design features. Implementation of
counters and registers in VHDL

3. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Technology Physics of NMOS, PMOS,
enhancement and depletion mode transistor, MOSFET, threshold voltage, flatband
condition, linear and saturated operation, FET capacitance, short channel and hot
electron effect.
08
4. MOS Transistors, MOS transistor switches, Basic MOS inverter and its working,
types of MOS invertors viz active load nMOS inverter, MOSFET Inverter with EnMOS
as pull up, MOSFET Inverter with D- nMOS as pull up, MOSFET Inverter
with pMOS as pull up, cmos inverter, voltage transfer characteristics, noise immunity
and noise margins, power and area considerations ,Parameter measurement in MOS
circuits
08
5. Silicon Semiconductor Technology Wafer processing, mask generation, oxidation,
epitaxy growth diffusion, ion implantation, lithography, etching, metalization, basic
NMOS and PMOS processes. Latch up in CMOS and CMOS using twin tub process.
Scaling of MOS circuits, types of scaling and limitations of scaling.
08
University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering (Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012) 11
6. Design rules and Layout NMOS and CMOS design rules and layout, Design of
NMOS and CMOS inverters, NAND and NOR gates. Interlayer contacts, butting and
buried contacts, stick diagrams, layout of inverter, NAND and NOR gates. Design of
basic VLSI circuits Design of circuits like multiplexer, decoder, priority encoder,
Flip flops, shift registers using MOS circuits

List of Experiments:
1. Study of NMOq W modulation of NMOS channel (Using ORCAD or similar software)
2. Study of CMOS Inverter characteristics (Using ORCAD or similar software)
3. Basic Logic gates ( using VHDL)
4. Binary to gray and Gray to Binary code conversion( using VHDL)
5. Binary to Excess-3 code conversion( using VHDL)
6. Implementation of 4:1/8:1 Mux( using VHDL)
7. Implementation of 3:8 Deoder( using VHDL)
8. Implementation of one bit Half Adder a Full adder ( using VHDL)
9. Implementation of 4 bit full adder using half adder as component( using VHDL)
10. Implementation of JK flip flop( using VHDL)

Text books:
1. Introduction to VLSI design, E. D. Fabricus, McGraw Hill Publications, first edition, 1990
2. Basic VLSI Design D.A. Pucknell and Eshraghian,
3. Digital Design Principles and Practises John F Wakerly,
4. CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits, Kang , Tata McGraw Hill Publications
Reference Books:
1. VHDL Programming by Examples Douglas Perry, , Tata McGraw Hill Publications, 2002
2. Principles of CMOS VLSI Design : ASystems Perspective Neil H.E. Weste, Kamran
Eshraghian second edition, Addison Wesley Publications, 1993
3. Digital Integrated Circuits: A Desiqn Perspective, Rabaey Jan M., Chandrakasan Anantha,
Nikolic Borivoje, second edition, Prentice Hall of India

Internal Assessment (IA):
Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks
of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.
End Semester Examination:
Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
The students need to solve total 4 questions.
Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.
Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.
University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering (Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012) 12

Term Work:
Term work consists of minimum eight experiments. The distribution of the term work shall be as
follows:
Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal) :15 marks
Attendance (Practical and Theory) :10 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and completion of journal. Term work assessment must be based on the overall
performance of the student.

 

Networking and Information Systems in Medicine

1. LAN, MAN, WAN, Performance of network/device parameters
Ethernet Technology: Ethernet types, Types of cables and connectors, Crossover and
straight through cables, Colour coding of cables
OSI Model, TCP/IP, Addressing types (IP, MAC & Port)

2. IP V4 addressing, Subnetting, Supernetting, IP V6, Detailed working of networking
equipment: HUB, Switch, Router, Modem, Bridge; Packet switching, Circuit
switching.

3. Basic Security Concepts
Security Mechanism and security services, Authentication, Authorization,
Confidentiality, Integrity, Symmetric and Asymmetric Key cryptography, RSA
algorithm

Information Systems in Medicine
4. PACS Components, Generic workflow, PACS architectures stand-alone, clientserver,
and Web-based, PACS and Teleradiology, Enterprise PACS and ePR System
with Image Distribution

5. Introduction to RIS and HIS, HIS/RIS/PACS integration, PIR, Storage Area
Network, Network Attached storage, RAID, PACS Server & Archive and operating
systems

University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering (Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012) 14
6. Introduction to Healthcare informatics standard HL7 and DICOM, IHE, IHE
Domains, Legal issues in PACS, HIPAA.

List of Experiments:
1. Study of various networking cables, demonstration of crimping of cables and configuring
networking parameters for computer.
2. Tutorial on IP addressing.
3. Introduction and basic commands used in various network simulation software.
4. Internetwork Communcation through Router and Switch, See the Mac Table of each
switch and Routing table of Router
5. Static routing configuration.
6. Generating the HL7 message format.
Text books:
1. PACS and Imaging Informatics by Huang, Second Edition, Wiley and Blackwell
2. PACS Guide to Digital Revolution by Keith J. Dreyer (Springer)
3. Data Communication and Networking by Behrouz A. Forouzan McGrow Hill
4. Computer Networks by A.S. Tanenbaum, Pearson Education

Reference Books:
1. Governance of Picture Archiving and Communications Systems by Carrison K.S. Tong
(Medical Information Science Reference)
2. Practical Imaging Informatics, By Barton F. Branstetter, Springer
3. PACS fundamentals- By Herman Oosterwijk
4. Cryptography and Network Security By William Stalling, Pearsons
Internal Assessment (IA):
Two tests must be conducted which should cover at least 80% of syllabus. The average marks
of both the tests will be considered for final Internal Assessment.
End Semester Examination:
Question paper will comprise of 6 questions, each carrying 20 marks.
The students need to solve total 4 questions.
Question No.1 will be compulsory and based on entire syllabus.
Remaining question (Q.2 to Q.6) will be selected from all the modules.

Term Work:
Term work consists of minimum eight experiments. The distribution of the term work shall be as
follows:
Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal) :15 marks
Attendance (Practical and Theory) :10 marks
The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of
laboratory work and completion of journal. Term work assessment must be based on the overall
performance of the student.

Project Stage – I

Project Guidelines
Project Groups: Students can form groups with minimum 2 (Two) and not more than 4 (Four)
Faculty Load: In semester VII – 1/2 (half) period of 1/2 hour per week per project group
Each faculty is permitted to take (guide) maximum 4 (Four) project groups.
University of Mumbai, Biomedical Engineering (Final Year) Revised Course (Rev-2012) 16