**GCET syllabus – GOA CET syllabus- **The GOA common entrance test that is used to secure seats for students into engineering and technology colleges in the state and place them according to a score based on merit.There is a syllabus of core 12th standard board topics in the subjects of Physics,Mathematics, Chemistry and Biology.

## GCET syllabus – GOA CET syllabus

## STD. XII PHYSICS

UNIT I: ELECTROSTATICS

Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces

between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field

due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s

theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged

infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and

system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point

charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and

electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator. UNIT II: CURRENT ELECTRICITY

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and

their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and

non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors;

temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series

and in parallel. Kirchhoff ’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing

emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell. UNIT III: MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current

carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and

toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel

current-carrying conductors – definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a

magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and

voltmeter.

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Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a

revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis

and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic

field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and

magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets. UNIT IV: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self

and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance;

LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current. AC generator and transformer. UNIT V: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Idea of displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas

only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma

rays) including elementary facts about their uses. UNIT VI: OPTICS

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection

and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens- maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a

mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects

(myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane

surface using wavefronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.

Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources

and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light;

Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

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UNIT VII: DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATION

Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric

equation – particle nature of light. Matter waves – wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment

(experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained.)

UNIT VIII: ATOMS AND NUCLEI

Alpha – particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number;

nuclear fission and fusion. UNIT IX: ELECTRONIC DEVICES

Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors;

semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;

I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage

regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an

amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and

NOR). Transistor as a switch. UNIT X: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and

digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the

atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of

an amplitude-modulated wave. Books: Published by Goa Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. 1. Physics Part I Textbook for class XII

2. Physics Part II Textbook for class XII

## CHEMISTRY

UNIT I: SOLID STATE

Classification of solids based on different binding forces :molecular, ionic covalent and metallic

solids, amorphous and crystalline solids(elementary idea),unit cell in two dimensional and three

dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids ,number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic

properties, Band theory of metals ,conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type

semiconductors . UNIT II : SOLUTIONS

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in

liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law , elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular

masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Vant Hoff factor. UNIT III: ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations

of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis

(elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. Relation between Gibbs energy change and

EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion. UNIT IV: CHEMICAL KINETICS

Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant,

integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision

theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).Activation energy, Arrhenious equation. UNIT V: SURFACE CHEMISTRY

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids;

catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal

state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic

multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian

movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types

of emulsions. UNIT VI: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF ELEMENTS

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and

refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

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UNIT VII: P-BLOCK ELEMENTS

Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses;

compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen

( structure only);

Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of

phosphine, halides (PCl3 , PCl5 ) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). Group 16 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses;

classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). Group 17 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and

uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures

only). Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical

and chemical properties, uses. UNIT VIII: d AND f BLOCK ELEMENTS

General introduction ,electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization

enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial

compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4

Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid

contraction and its consequences. Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthenoids

UNIT IX: COORDINATION COMPOUNDS

Coordination compounds : Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties

and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding, Werner’s

theory VBT,CFT; isomerism (structural and stereo)importance of coordination compounds (in

qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems). UNIT X: HALOALKANES AND HALOARENES

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of

substitution reactions. Optical rotation. Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for

monosubstituted compounds only).

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Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane,

iodoform, freons, DDT. UNIT XI: ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary

alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of

dehydration, uses, with special reference to methanol and ethanol. Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature

of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses. UNIT XII: ALDEHYDES, KETONES AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha

hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical

properties; uses. UNIT XIII: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical

properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines. Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. UNIT XIV: BIOMOLECULES

Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D-L

configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance. Proteins – Elementary idea of ? – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary

structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones –Elementary idea (excluding structure). Vitamins – Classification and functions. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

UNIT XV: POLYMERS

Classification – Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

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UNIT XVI: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

1. Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines. 2. Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of

antioxidants. 3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action. Books: Published by Goa Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. 1. Chemistry Part I Textbook for class XII

2. Chemistry Part II Textbook for class XII

## MATHEMATICS

UNIT I: RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

1. Relations and Functions Types of relations: Reflexive, symmetric, transitive and

equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse

of a function. Binary operations. 2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions Definition, range, domain, principal value

branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of

inverse trigonometric functions. UNIT II: ALGEBRA

1. Matrices Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non-commutativity of multiplication of

matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix

(restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column

operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists;

(Here all matrices will have real entries). 2. Determinants Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 × 3 matrices), properties of

determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area

of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and

number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of

linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a

matrix. UNIT III: CALCULUS

1. Continuity and Differentiability Continuity and differentiability, derivative of

composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Concepts of exponential, logarithmic functions.

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Derivatives of x e log and

x e . Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions

expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s

Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations

2. Applications of Derivatives Applications of derivatives: Rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, approximation, maxima and

minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test

given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and

understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations). 3. Integrals Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of

functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple integrals of

the type – ? ?

2 2

x a

dx

? ? ?

2 2 x a

dx

? ? ?

2 2 a x

dx

?? ax ?bx ? c

dx

2

? ?

ax ?bx ? c

dx

2

dx

ax bx c

px q ? ? ?

?

2

( )

? dx

ax bx c

px q ? ? ?

?

2

( )

? a x dx ? ?

2 2

? x a dx ? ?

2 2

ax bx c dx ? ? ?

2

? px q ax bx c dx ? ? ? ?

2 ( )

to be evaluated. Definite integrals as a limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without

proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals. ?? Applications of the Integrals Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, arcs of circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), area

between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable). ?? Differential Equations Definition, order and degree, general and particular

solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose

general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation

of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type – Py Q

dx

dy ? ? where P and Q are functions of x or constant

Px Q

dy

dx

? ? where P and Q are functions of y or constant

UNIT IV: VECTORS AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

1. Vectors Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction

cosines/ratios of vectors. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and coplanar

vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point

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dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection

of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product. 2. Three-dimensional Geometry Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance

between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two

lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane. UNIT V: LINEAR PROGRAMMING

Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical

formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two

variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal

feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints). UNIT VI: PROBABILITY

Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Baye’s theorem. Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of haphazard variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials

and Binomial distribution. Books: Published by Goa Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. 1. Mathematics Part I Textbook for class XII

2. Mathematics Part II Textbook for class XII

## BIOLOGY

CLASS XII

I. REPRODUCTION

Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for

continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction;

Modes- Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in

plants. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female

gametophytes; Pollination–types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil

interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events– Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes– apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation. Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and

ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo

development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation

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(Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea). Reproductive health:

Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP);

Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea

for general awareness). II. GENETICS AND EVOLUTION

Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism– Incomplete

dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy;

Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and

genes; Sex determination– In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked

inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans– Thalassemia;

Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes. Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure

of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic

code,translation; Gene expression and regulation– Lac Operon; Genome and human genome

project; DNA finger printing. Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern

Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution– Variation (Mutation and Recombination)

and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic dirft;

Hardy- Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution. III BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE

Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology–

vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification;

Apiculture and Animal husbandry. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage

treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. IV BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms- Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues– Biopiracy and patents.

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V ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations;

Populationinteractions–mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes–

growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of

number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession;

Ecological Services– Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release. Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of

Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries. Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals

and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect

and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories

addressing environmental issues. Books: Published by Goa Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Biology Textbook for Class XIIth

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