# GITAM GAT exam syllabus – Gandhi Institute of technology

**GITAM GAT exam syllabus – Gandhi Institute of technology** – The entrance test or general admission test is conducted by the university of Gandhi Institute of Technology and management to place students into engineering and management seats in the college based on merit and score rank of the examination.the syllabus includes four sections of the paper divided into Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology.

Contents

## GITAM GAT exam syllabus

### Mathematics Section – A

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SECTION – A: MATHEMATICS

UNIT – 1

SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS: Sets and their representation, Union,

Intersection and compliment of sets, and their algebraic properties,

power set, Relation, Types of relation, Equivalence relation, Functions,

one-one, into and onto functions, composite functions.

UNIT – 2

MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION: Principle of Mathematical Induction and its

simple applications.

MATHEMATICAL REASONING: Statements, Logical operations and, or,

implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of tautology, contradiction,

Converse and Contra positive.

UNIT – 3

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS & THEORY OF EQUATIONS:

Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions.

Reminder and Factor Theorems, common Roots, General Quadratic

expression, Finding the range of a function, Location of roots, Solving

inequalities using location of roots.

THEORY OF EQUATIONS: The relation between the roots and coefficients

in an equation; Solving the equation when two or more roots of it are

connected by certain relations; Equations with real coefficients, imaginary

roots occur in conjugate pairs and its consequences; Transformation of

equations, Reciprocal equations.

UNIT – 4

BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS

Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle

term, properties of Binomial coefficients and simple applications.

UNIT – 5

SEQUENCES AND SERIES: Arithmetic and Geometric progressions,

insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers.

Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum to n terms of special series

2 3 ? ? ? n n n , ,

. Arithmetic – Geometric progression.

Syllabus – Mathematics Section – A

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UNIT – 6

PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS:

Definition of linear and circular permutations; To find the number of

permutations of n dissimilar things taken ‘r’ at a time. To prove

? ? ? ?

1

1 1

r

r r

P P P

n n r n

?

? ? ? ?

from the first principles; To find number of

Permutations of n Dissimilar things taken ‘r’ at a time when repetition

of things is allowed any number of times.; To find number of circular

Permutations of n Different things taken all at a time.; To find the number of

Permutations of ‘n’ things taken ‘r’ at a time when some of them are alike

and the rest are dissimilar; To find the number of combinations of ‘n’

dissimilar things taken ‘r’ at a time; To prove i) If

r C s

n n C

?

then n = r+s or

r=s ii)

? ?

1

1

r r Cr

C C n n n

?

? ? ? .

UNIT – 7

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS: Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of

matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of

determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using

determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using

determinants and elementary transformations, Test for consistency and

solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using

determinants and matrices, and rank of matrix.

UNIT – 8

VECTOR ALGEBRA: Algebra of Vectors – angle between two non-zero

vectors – Linear combination of vectors – Geometrical applications of vectors.

Scalar and vector product of two, three and four vectors and their

application.

UNIT- 9

THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY: Co-ordinates of a point in space,

Distance between two points, Section formula, Direction ratios and direction

cosines, Angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest

distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in

different forms, Intersection of a line and a plane, Coplanar lines.

UNIT- 10

TRIGONOMETRY: Trigonometric ratios, Compound angles, multiple and

sub-multiple angle, Transformations, Trigonometric expansions using

Demovier’s Theorem. Trigonometric equations, Inverse Trigonometry and

Heights and distances(only 2D problems).

Syllabus – Mathematics Section – A

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UNIT – 11

PROPERTIES OF TRIANGLES: Sine rule, cosine rule, Tangent rule,

projection rule, Half angle formulae and area of triangle. In-circle and excircle

of a Triangle. Pedal Triangle, Ex-central Triangle, Geometry relation of

Ex-centres, Distance between centres of Triangle. m-n Theorem, problems

and quadrilateral, regular polygon, solution of Triangle (Ambiguous cases).

COMPLEX NUMBERS: Definitions, Integral Power of iota(i), Algebraic

operations with complex numbers, square root of a complex number,

Geometrical representation of a complex number, Modz, Arg of Z, polar term

of Z, Eulors form of Z, Conjugate of Z, Properties of conjugate, solving

complex equations, Demovre’s Theorem, Properties of ?1

3

, ?1

4

, ?1

?

,

Geometrical applications of complex numbers.

UNIT – 12

LIMITS, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY (LCD): Real – valued

functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric,

logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple

functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum,

difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of

trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and

implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two.

UNIT – 13

APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES: Rate of change of quantities, Errors

and approximations, Tangent and normals, maxima and minima of functions

of one variable, mean value theorems (Rolle’s, lagrange’s, Intermediate

value theorem).

UNIT – 14

INDEFINITE INTEGRATION: Fundamental Integration formulae, Method

of integration, Integration by parts, Integration by substitution,

Integration of Rational and Irrational Algebraic functions, Integral of the

form ? ?

?(a+??

?

)

p?? Integration using Euler’s substitution. Reduction

formulae over indefinite integrals, Integration using differentiation.

UNIT – 15

APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRALS: Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental

Theorem of integral calculus. Problems on all the properties of definite

integrals. Libnitz rule. Determining areas of the regions bounded by curves.

Syllabus – Mathematics Section – A

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UNIT – 16

CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY: Locus: Definition of locus; Equation of locus

and its illustration on complete geometry; Translation & Rotation of axes

and its illustrations

STRAIGHT LINES : Different forms of straight lines, distance of a point from

a line, lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, angular

bisectors of two lines, Foot of perpendicular, Image point (vs) point, point

(vs) line and line (vs) line. Concurrences of lines, centroid, orthocenter,

incentre and circumcentre of triangle.

UNIT – 17

CIRCLES: Equation of a circle-Standard form-centre and radius-Equation of

a circle with a given line segment as diameter- Equation of circle through

three non-colinear points-parametric equations of a circle. Position of a point

in the plane of the circle- power of a point-Def. of a tangent-Length of

tangent. Position of a straight line in the plane of the circle-condition for a

straight line to be a tangent– chord joining two points on a circle – equation

of the tangent at a point on the circle – point of contact – Equation of

normal. Chord of contact-Pole, Polar-conjugate points and conjugate linesEquation

of chord with given mid point. Relative positions of two circlescircles

touching each other-externally, internally, common tangents-points

of similitude-Equation of tangents from an external point. Angle between two

intersecting circles. Conditions for Orthogonalities. Concepts of Radical

axis and Radical Centre.

UNIT – 18

PARABOLA, ELLIPSE, HYPERBOLA AND POLAR CO-ORDINATES:

a) PARABOLA: Conic sections-parabola-Equation of parabola in standard

form-Different forms of parabola; parametric equations. Equation of tangent

and normal at a point on the parabola (cartesian and parametric)- condition

for a straight line to be a tangent.

b) ELLIPSE: Equation of Ellipse in standard form, parametric equations.

Equation of tangent and normal at a point on the Ellipse (Cartesian and

parametric) condition for a straight line to be a tangent.

c) HYPERBOLA: Equation of hyperbola in standard form-parametric

equations, Rectangular Hyperbola.; equation of tangent and normal at a

point on the hyperbola (Cartesian and parametric) condition for a straight

line to be a tangent. Asymptotes.

Syllabus – Mathematics Section – A

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UNIT – 19

DIFFERENTIAL EQUALITIONS: Ordinary differential equations, their order

and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential

equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of

homogeneous, Non-Homogenous, linear differential equations. Bernoulli’s

Equation, Orthogonal Trajectory. Applications of Differential equations.

UNIT – 20

PROBABILITIES, RANDOM VARIABLES & DISTRIBUTIONS AND

STATISTICS :

PROBABILITY: Random experiment, random event, elementary events,

exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Sample space, Sample events,

Addition theorem on Probability. Dependent and independent events,

multiplication theorem, Baye’s theorem.

RANDOM VARIABLES & DISTRIBUTIONS: Random variables,

Distributive functions, probability distributive functions, Mean, variance of a

random variable; Bernoulli trials and Binomial distributions.

STATISTICS: Measures of Dispersion; Calculation of Mean, Median, Mode

of grouped and ungrouped data, Calculation of Standard Deviation,

Variance and Mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.

## BIOLOGY

Syllabus – Biology Section – A

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BOTANY

UNIT – 1

Diversity in living world:

1. What is living? Biodiversity, Need for classification. Three domains of life.

Taxonomy & systematic concepts of species and taxonomical hierarchy.

Binomial nomenclature tools for study of Taxonomy, Herbaria, Botanical

gardens.

2. Five kingdom classifications, Silent features and classification of Monera,Protista

and Fuji into major groups.

3. Salient features and classification of plants into major groups. Algae (spirogyra)

Bryophytes (Funenia), Ptenidophytes (Pteris), Gymnosperms (Cycas).

UNIT – 2

External morphology:

Root, Stem, Leaf, Inflorescence, Flower, Fruit and Seed.

UNIT – 3

Internal Morphology:

1. Histology: Meristems, Simple tissues, Complex tissues and special tissues.

2. Tissue System: Epidermal, Ground and Vascular tissue systems.

3. Anatomy: Anatomy of Dicot and monocot root, dicot and monocot stem, dicoct

and monocot leaf, secondary growth in dicot stem and dicot root.

UNIT – 4

Cell Biology:

1. Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life. Structure of prokaryotic and

eukaryotic cell, plant and animal cell. Cell wall, cell membrane, cell organelles

structure and function 1 chromosomes.

2. Biomolecules: Structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic

acids, enzymes.

3. Cell division: Cell cycle, Mitosis and meiosis.

Syllabus – Biology Section – A

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UNIT – 5

Plant Taxonomy:

Introduction: Principles of plant classification, brief account of Bentham &

Hooker’s system.

Families: Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Solenacrae, Liliaceae poaceae.

UNIT – 6

Reproduction:

1. Reproduction organisms, Modes of reproduction. Asexual and sexual. Asexual

regproduction – Binary fission, Sporulation, Budding, gemmule, Fragmentation,

Vegetative propagation in plants.

2. Sexual reproduction flowering plants. Development of male and female

gametophytes. Pollination types, agents. Out breeding devices, Double

fertilization, post fertilization changes. Development of endosperm, embryo and

seed. Apomixis, parthenocerpy, polyembryony.

UNIT – 7

Microbiology:

1. Bacteria and Viruses

2. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial

production, sewage treatment , energy generation and as biocontrol agents and

biofertilizers.

UNIT – 8

Human welfare:

Improvement in food production. Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein,

Mushroom cultivation, Biofortification.

UNIT – 9

Biotechnology and its applications:

1. Principles and process of Biotechnology, Genetic engineering.

2. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture and health. Human insulin and

vaccine production, genetherapy, Genetically modified organisms, Bt. Crops,

Trasgeric animals, Biosafety issues – Biopiracy and patents.

Syllabus – Biology Section – A

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UNIT – 10

Plant Physiology:

1. Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell

transport – Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water

relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance

transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root

pressure and guttation. Transpiration – Opening and closing of stomata;

Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem

transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (Brief mention).

2. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their

role; Deficiency symptoms: Mineral Toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as

a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism; Nitrogen cycle,

biological nitrogen fixation.

3. Photosynthesis : Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition, Site of

photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary

idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non

cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3

and C4 pathways;

4. Factors affecting photosynthesis.

5. Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation

(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy

relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways;

Respiratory quotient.

6. Plant growth and development : Seed germination; Phases of plant growth

and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation

and redifferentiation ; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell;

Growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed

dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

******

Syllabus – Biology Section – A

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Zoology

UNIT – 1

Animal Classification:

1. Salient features (3 to 5) and two examples of Non-chordate phyla.

2. Salient features (3 to 5) and two examples of chordate classes.

UNIT – 2

Structural Organisation in animals:

1. Cockroach: Brief account of morphology, anatomy and functions of digestive

circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive systems.

2. Animal tissues: Epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues.

UNIT – 3

Human Physiology-Digestive and Respiratory systems:

1. Digestive System : Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive

enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and

assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; caloric value of proteins,

carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders-PEM,

indigestion, constipation, vomiting, Jaundice, diarrhea.

2. Respiratory system: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory

system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans –

Exchange of gases; transport of gases and regulation of respiration; Respiratory

volumes; Disorders related respiration-Asthma Emphysema, Occupational

respiratory disorders.

UNIT – 4

Human Physiology: Circulatory and Excretory Systems:

1. Circulatory System: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of

blood; composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system –

Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, Cardiac output, ECG,

Double circulation; Regulation of Cardiac activity, Disorders of circulatory

system – Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

2. Excretory System : Modes of Excretion – Ammonotelism, ureotelism,

Uricotelism; Human excretory system – Structures and function; Urine

formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of Kidney function – Renin – angiotensin,

Atrial Natriuretic Factor; ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in

excretion; Disorders; Uremia, Renal Failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and

artificial Kidney.

Syllabus – Biology Section – A

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UNIT – 5

Human Physiology–Locomotion & Movement and Neuro Endocrine System:

1. Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement – ciliary, Flagellor, muscular;

Skeletal muscle – Contractile proteins muscle contraction; Disorder of muscles.

Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular distrophy.

2. Skeletal System and its functions: joints; Disorders of skeletal system –

Osteoporosis, Arthritis, Gout.

3. Nervous System: Neurons and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central

nervous system, Peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system;

Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs:

Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

4. Endocrine System: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system

– Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas,

Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary idea); Role of hormones as

messengers and regulators, Hypo and hyperactivity and related disorders(e.g.

Dwarfism, Acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes,

Addison’s disease).

UNIT – 6

Human Physiology – Reproduction:

1. Human Reproduction: Male and Female reproductive systems; Microscopic

anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis – Spermatogenesis & oogenesis;

Menstrual Cycle; Fertilization, Embryo development upto blastocyst formation,

implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition

(Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

2. Reproductive Health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually

transmitted diseases (STDs); Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception

and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and

assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT ( Elementary idea for

general awareness);

Syllabus – Biology Section – A

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UNIT – 7

Genetics:

1) Heredity and Variations: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviation from Mendelism –

Incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood

groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome

Theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – In

humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance –

Hemophilia, Colourblindness; mendelian disorders in humans – Thalassemia;

Chromosomal disorders in humans – Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and

Klinefelter’s Syndromes.

2) Molecular basis of Inheritance : Search for genetic material and DNA as

genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication;

Central dogma; Transcription; genetic code; translation Gene expression and

regulation – Lac operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger

printing.

3) Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological

evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular,

evidence – Darwin’s contribution , Modern synthetic theory of Evolution,

Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural

selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift,

Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation ; Human evolution.

UNIT – 8

Human Health and Diseases:

1) Pathogens; Parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis,

Typhoid Pneumonia, Common Cold, Amoebiasis, Ringworm).

2) Basic concepts of immunology – Vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS.

3) Adolescence, Drug and alcohol abuse.

Syllabus – Biology Section – A

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UNIT – 9

Ecology and Environment:

1) Organisms and environment : Habitat and niche; Population and Ecological

adaptations; Population Interactions – Mutualism, Competition, Predation,

Parasitism; Population attributes – Growth, birth rate and death rate, age

distribution.

2) Ecosystem: Patterns, Components; Productivity and decomposition; Energy

flow; Pyramids of numbers, biomass, energy, Nutrient cycling (carbon and

phosphorous); Ecological succession; plant communities; Ecological services –

carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

3) Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of

Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity

conservation; Hotspots; endangered organisms, extinction; Red Data Book;

Biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

4) Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its

control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive

Waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion;

Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing

environmental issues.

## SECTION – B: PHYSICS

UNIT – 1

1. UNITS AND DIMENSIONS :Units for fundamental and derived quantities;

Systems of Units; SI system of units – rules for writing unit, derived units, multiple

units and sub multiple units in SI system; Measurement for quantitative study,

Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; Errors due to external causes –

constant type, systematic type and environmental type; Errors due to imperfections

in experimental techniques/procedure/personal/observation – random errors, gross

errors, absolute errors, mean absolute error and relative error percentage error;

errors due to addition, subtraction, multiplication division and powers of observed

quantities; Significant figures, Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional

formulae, applications and limitations of dimensional analysis.

2. ELEMENTS OF VECTORS: Classification of physical quantities as vectors and

scalars Geometrical representation of vectors – Addition and subtraction of vectors.

Laws of addition of vectors – Equal and null vectors. Unit vectors – Unit vectors in

Cartesian co-ordinate system – position vector and its magnitude. Parallelogram

law of vectors – Expression for the resultant vector. Triangle law and polygon law of

vectors – concept of relative velocity- application to relative motion of a boat in a

river. Multiplication of a vector with a scalar – Scalar product with examples of work

and energy – Vector product with examples of torque and angular momentum –

Vector and Scalar product of unit vectors.

UNIT – 2

1. KINEMATICS : Force and Inertia, Newton’s Law of Motion, Momentum, Impulse.

Concept of resultant force, equilibrium of concurrent forces. Force of Friction,

Types of friction, Types of Coefficient of friction. Angle of friction, Angle of repose.

Motion of a body on a smooth and rough horizontal surface. Motion of a body on

a smooth and rough inclined plane. Law of Conservation of Linear momentum and

its applications. Motion in a straight line, speed and velocity. Uniform non

uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity, Uniformly accelerated

motion. Position-time graph, Velocity-time graph, Acceleration-time graphs relation

for uniformly accelerated motion. Motion of freely falling body, Vertically projected

body. Projectile motion.

2. WORK-POWER-ENERGY: Work done by a constant force and a variable force.

Power, Types of Energies: Mechanical Energy, Potential energy and Kinetic energy.

Work energy theorem. Conservative and Non-Cons

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Section – B Page 2 of 6

UNIT – 3

1. CENTRE OF MASS: Introduction, Centre of mass, difference between centre

of mass and centre of gravity. Co-ordinates of centre of mass. Centre of mass of

particles along a line, center of mass of system of particles in a plane, center of

mass of system of particles in space. Centre of mass of rigid body with

homogenous distribution of mass of a thin rod, circular ring, disc and sphere.

Motion of centre of mass (Velocity and acceleration of center of mass)

characteristics of centre of mass, laws of motion of the centre of mass, velocity

and acceleration. Explosion – motion of the centre of mass of earth – moon

system

2. COLLISIONS: Introduction – Elastic and inelastic collisions. Collisions in one

dimension (elastic and inelastic) body at rest, bodies moving in same direction and

opposite directions. Co- efficient of restitution definition. Equation for height

attained for freely falling body after number of rebounds on floor. Two

dimensional collision.

UNIT – 4

1. ROTATORY MOTION: Introduction, uniform circular motion, concept of angular

displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration, relation between

linear velocity and angular velocity, centripetal acceleration and Centripetal

force, torque, couple. Moment of Inertia: Perpendicular axis theorem. Parallel axis

theorem. MI of a thin rod, uniform disc, rectangular lamina, solid and hollow

spheres, circular ring and cylinder. Angular Momentum: Relation between

angular momentum and torque, law of conservation of angular momentum with

examples. Motion in vertical circle.

Rolling without shipping and toppling.

2. GRAVITATION: Basic forces in nature; The Universal law of gravitation; Nature of

gravity; Relation between Universal gravitational constant (G) and acceleration due

to gravity(g); variation of “g” with altitude, depth, latitude and shape of earth;

Limitations of Newton’s third Law. Idea of inertial and non-inertial frames – Inertial

and gravitational masses – Gravitational Potential and Gravitational Potential

Energy. Escape velocity, orbital velocity and relation between them – Geo

stationary Satellites, their uses.

GAT-UGTP-2017 Syllabus – Physics

Section – B Page 3 of 6

UNIT – 5

1. ELASTICITY: Elasticity & Plasticity – Stress and Strain – Hooke’s Law, Moduli of

elasticity (Y, n, K) – Poission’s ratio – definition and its limit; behaviour of wire

under gradually increasing load – elastic fatigue, strain Energy.

2. SURFACE TENSION: Surface tension – definition and applications, Molecular

theory of surface tension, surface energy. Angle of contact, Capillarity

Determination of surface tension by capillary rise method – theory and experiment.

Effect of temperature on surface tension, Excess pressure in liquid drops and soap

bubbles.

3. FLUID MECHANICS: Introduction, Principle of Buoyancy, pressure due to fluid

column. Pascal’s Law and its applications. Stream line flow, Turbulent Flow,

Reynolds number, Bernoulli’s theorem. Applications- aerodynamic lift, motion

of a spinning ball. Viscosity, coefficient of viscosity, effect of temperature

on viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation. Motion of objects through fluids, Stoke’s

law, terminal velocity.

UNIT – 6

1. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER: Temperature and heat, measurement of

temperature. Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases. Specific heat

capacity, Colorimetry, change of state, latent heat, Triple point. Heat transfer,

Conduction, Convection and Radiation. Black body radiation, Stefan’s Law,

Wien’s Displacement Law, Newton’s Law of Cooling.

2. THERMODYNAMICS: Thermal Equilibrium, Zeroth Law of thermodynamics.

Heat internal energy and work. First law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic

processes – Isothermal, Adiabatic, Isobaric, Isochoric, Quasi static processes.

Second law of thermodynamics; Reversible and Irreversible processes. Carnot

engine and refrigerator.

3. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES: Gas Laws, ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of

gases – assumptions, pressure of an ideal gas. Kinetic interpretation of

temperature, RMS speed of a gas molecule. Degree of Freedom, Law of

equipartition of energy. Specific heats of gases. Mean free path, Avogadro’s

number.

GAT-UGTP-2017 Syllabus – Physics

Section – B Page 4 of 6

UNIT – 7

1. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION: Periodic motion – Period, Frequency,

Displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion

and its equations, phase. Oscillations of simple pendulum, Oscillations of a

spring – Restoring force and force constant. Energy in S.H.M – Kinetic and

potential energies. Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.

2. WAVE MOTION: Longitudinal and transverse waves, Equation for a progressive

wave, principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves. Formation of

stationary waves on a stretched string.

3. SOUND: Characteristics of sound – speed of sound in solids, liquids and gases

Standing waves in Organ Pipes – Open Pipes, Closed Pipes, Fundamental

frequency, Overtones, Harmonics, Beats. Doppler Effect: Applications and

limitations of Doppler Effect. Echoes.

UNIT – 8

1. RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS: Reflection of light, Reflection of

light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula. Reflection of light, Snell’s

Law, Total internal reflection. Lens formula, Magnification power of a lens,

Combination of lenses, Culling of a lens, Silvering of a lens. Refraction through a

prism. Microscope and astronomical telescope and their magnifying powers.

2. WAVE OPTICS: Huygens Principle and wavefront. Law of reflection and refraction

using Huygens principle. Interference of light, Young’s double slit experiment,

Fringe width. Diffraction of light, Diffraction due to a single slit, Width of central

maxima. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Polarization of light,

Plane of polarized light. Brewster’s law. Polaroids and their uses.

GAT-UGTP-2017 Syllabus – Physics

Section – B Page 5 of 6

UNIT – 9

1. ELECTROSTATICS AND CAPACITORS: Charges – conservation of charge and

additive property of charges. Coulomb’s Law: Permittivity of Free Space and

Permittivity of Medium – Force between two point charges. Force due to multiple

charges – Principle of Superposition with examples. Electric field – Electric lines

of force, their properties – Electric intensity definition – Electric intensity due to

isolated charge and due to -multiple charges. Electrostatic Potential – Definition of

Electrostatic Potential in an electric field – Potential due to single charge – multiple

charges – Electrostatic potential energy – Relation between electrostatic potential

and electric intensity. Electric Flux Definition, Gauss’ Law – Statement of

Gauss’ Law, Application of Gauss’ Law to find electric intensity and electrostatic

Potential due to continuous charge distribution of Infinite Long wire, Infinite Plane

Sheet and Spherical Shell. Capacitance – Definition of Electrical Capacity of a

Conductor – Capacitance – Dielectric constant – Definition of Condenser, its uses –

Parallel plate Condenser – Formula for Capacitance of Parallel Plate Condenser,

Dielectric – Dielectric Strength – Effect of dielectric on capacitance of capacitors.

Capacitors in series and in parallel – derivation of the equivalent capacitance for the

above cases. Energy stored in a Condenser – Effect of dielectric on Energy of

Condenser – Types of capacitors – their uses.

2. CURRENT ELECTRICITY: Electric current – Flow of Electric charges in a metallic

conductor – Drift velocity and mobility – Relation between electric current and

drift velocity. Ohm’s Law: Ohmic and Non Ohmic elements with examplesconductance-specific

resistance-variation of resitivity with temperature-variation of

resistance with temperature – thermistors, Colour code for resistors. E.M.F. of Cell –

Internal resistance and back E. M.F. – Difference between EMF of a Cell and

potential difference. Electrical energy, Power definition of KW hr. Kirchhoffs laws:

Statement of Kirchhoff’s voltage law – Kirchhoffs current law – Application to

Wheatstone bridge – condition for balancing – Meter bridge – Determination of

resistance of a conductor using meter bridge. Principle of Potentiometer

determination of internal resistance and E.M.F. of a cell using potentiometer.

Series and parallel combination of cells – Derivation of equivalent EMF for the

above cases.

3. CR CIRCUITS (DC ONLY): Growth of charge in C-R series circuit. Decay of

charge in C-R series circuit. Time constant of C-R circuit.

UNIT – 10

1. ELECTROMAGNETISM: Biot-savart Law – Ampere Law – Magnetic field near a long

straight wire and magnetic field at the center of a circular coil carrying current (with

derivation) – Field on the axis of a circular coil carrying current (with expressions

only)Tangent Galvanometer – principle and working – Definition of reduction factor

– force on a moving charge in a magnetic field – force on a current carrying

conductor in a magnetic field – force between two long straight parallel conductors

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Section – B Page 6 of 6

carrying current – definition of ampere – Fleming’s left hand rule-current loop as a

magnetic dipole, force and torque on current loop in a uniform magnetic field –

magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron – principle , construction and

working of a moving coil galvanometer –conversion of moving coil galvanometer

into ammeter and voltmeter – comparison of M.C.G with T.G.

2. MAGNETISM: Magnetic moment, Magnetic moment of bar magnet. Magnetic

induction on the axial and equatorial line of a bar magnet. Couple on a bar magnet

in a magnetic field. Elements of Earth’s magnetism dip, declination. Dia, Para,

Ferro magnetic substances.

3. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND AC CIRCUITS: Faraday’s Law, induced

emf and induced current. Lenz’s Law, Fleming’s right hand rule. Self induction,

Mutual induction, Motional emf.

Alternating currents. Peak, RMS and average values of AC and AV. Series L-R, CR,

L-C and L-C-R Circuit. Reactance, impedance. Resonance of L-C-R circuit.

Quality factor, power in AC circuits, Transformers.

UNIT- 11

1. DUALNATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATION: Dual nature of radiation.

Photoelectric effect, Hertz’s and Lenard’s observation. Einstein’s photoelectric

equation particle nature of light. Matter wave’s and de-Broglie’s theory,

Davison-Germer experiment.

2. ATOMS AND NUCLEI: Rutherford’s alpha-particle scattering experiment. Bohr’s

atomic model, Hydrogen spectrum, energy levels. Composition of nucleus, atomic

mass unit, isotopes, isobars, isotones. Radio activity, Radioactive disintegration

law ?. ? and ? decay. Mass defect, Binding energy, average binding energy. Binding

energy curve. Mass energy relation. Nuclear fission and fusion.

3. SEMI-CONDUCTOR DEVICES AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: Intrinsic and

Extrinsic semiconductors (n and p type) Junction diode – p-n junction, depletion

layer and barrier potential, forward and reverse bias – current voltage

characteristics of junction diode – p-n diode as half wave and full wave rectifier,

(only qualitative treatment) Zener diode as a voltage regulator – I-V characteristics

of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode – Transistor – function of emitter,

base and collector – p-n-p, n-p-n transistors – Biasing of transistors, current,

voltage – Characteristics of transistor in CE configuration – Transistor as common

emitter amplifier (qualitative treatment). Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and

NOR) – Communication systems; Elements of communication systems (block

diagrams only) Bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data) bandwidth of

Transmission medium – Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere,

sky and space wave propagation – Modulation – Need for modulation.

## Section – C: CHEMISTRY

UNIT – 1

1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE: Characteristics of Electron, Proton and Neutron,

RutherFord’s model of atom – Nature of electromagnetic theory – Plancks

Quantum Theory, Explanation of photoelectric effect – Features of atomic

Spectra – Characteristics of Hydrogen spectrum, Bohr’s theory of structure of

atom, Bohr’s explanation of spectralines, failure of Bohr’s theory – Wave particle

nature of electron – de Brogile’s hypothesis, Heisensbergs uncertainly principle,

Important features of the Quantam mechanical model of atom, Quantum

numbers, concept of orbitals – Expressing atomic orbitals interms of quantum

numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, Aufbau principle, paulis exclusion

principle, Hunds’.rule of maximum multiplicity. Electronic configuration of

atoms, explanation of stability of half – filled and completely filled orbitals.

2. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY: Composition of Nucleus, Isotopes, Isotones, Isobars,

Isodiaphers, Factors effecting nuclear stability, mass defect, binding energy, N/P

ratio. Radioactive disintegration and its rate – Half life and average life, Types of

nuclear reactors – Fission and Fussion with examples one each. Radioactive

isotopes and their applications – Iodine 131, Cobalt 60, Sodium 24, C14 and

P30-Properties of ? ? and ? rays.

3. CHEMICAL BONDING: Orbital overlap and covalent bond, Ionic bond and

Fajan’s rules, Lattice energy, Hybridisation involving S, P and d orbitals,

MOT(Homo nuclear diatomic species only), H-bond, Dipolemoment, VSEPR

theory and shapes of molecules.

UNIT – 2

1. CLASSIFICAITON OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY OF PROPERTIES :

Concept of grouping of elements in accordance with their properties, The periodic

law, The significance of atomic number and electronic configuration as the basis

for periodic classification – Classification of elements into s,p,d, f blocks and their

main characteristics – Classification of elements based on their properties.

2. HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS : Position of hydrogen in the periodic table.

Occurance, isotopes of hydrogen, Preparation, properties and uses (including as

fuel) of hydrogen. Reactions of hydrogen with different types of elements

leading to Ionic, molecular and non-stoichiometric hydrides, Physical and

chemical properties of water and heavy water, hydrogen peroxide – Methods of

preparation, physical and chemical properties – oxidation – reduction,

decomposition and disproportionate and addition reactions. Detection of

hydrogen peroxide -structure and uses of Hydrogen peroxide.

Syllabus – Chemistry Section – C

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3. ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS: General introduction, electronic

configuration, occurrence, anamolous properties of first element in each group,

diagonal relationship, trends in properties like Ionisation enthalpy, atomic and

ionic radii, reactivity with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and water. Preparation

and properties and uses of the compounds sodium hydroxide, salts of oxoacids,

sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium chloride, biological

importance of sodium and potassium, preparation and uses of CaO, CaCO3 and

CaSO4 , Industrial uses of lime and limestone – Biological importance of Mg and

Ca.

UNIT – 3

1. STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS: Grahams Law of diffusion,

Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behavior, Emperical

derivation of Gas equation, Ideal gas equation. Kinetic molecular theory of

gases, Kinetic gas equation (No derivation) and deduction of gas laws from

kinetic gas equation, Distribution of molecular velocities – types of molecular

velocities, behavior of real gases, Deviation from ideal behavior, compressibility

factor Vs pressure diagrams of real Conditions for liquefication of gases, critical

temperature, Liquid state – properties of liquids in terms of Intermolecular

attractions, Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (Quantitative Idea

only. No mathematical derivation).

2. CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS : THERMODYNAMICS: Concepts of system,

types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive

properties, state functions, First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and

enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, Exothermic and endothermic

reactions. Measurement of U and H, Enthalpies of bond dissociation,

combustion, neutralization, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase

transition, ionization and dilution, Thermo-chemical equations.

Hess’s law of constant heat summation, Driving force for a spontaneous process,

Thermodynamic representation of criteria of spontaneity in terms of entropy,

entropy as a state function, Gibbs free energy, Gibbs free energy change for

spontaneous, non spontaneous process and equilibrium process.

UNIT – 4

1. SOLUTIONS: Classification of solutions, Molarity Normality, Molality, Mole

fraction, Dilute solutions, vapour pressure, Raoult’s Law, Limitations of Raoults

Law Colligative properties, relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of

boiling point, depression in freezing point, Osmosis and osmotic pressure, theory

of dilute solutions, determination of molar masses using colligative properties,

abnormal molecular mass.

2. IONIC EQUILIBRIUM: Lowry – Bronsted acids and bases theory, Lewis

theory, limitations of Lewis theory, Ionic equilibrium, ionization of acids and

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bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionic product of water.

Concept of pH

, Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), hydrolysis constant, buffer

solutions, solubility product and common ion effect with illustrative examples.

3. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM: Equilibrium in physical and chemical process,

Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, Equilibrium constant,

Factors affecting equilibrium, Relation between Kp and Kc, Le- Chatlier’s

principle, applications to the industrial processes like (I) ammonia – Haber’s

process (2) H2SO4-Contact process.

UNIT – 5

1. SOLID STATE: Classification of solids based on different binding forces such as

molecular, ionic, covalent solids and metallic solids, Treatment of metallic bond

and metallic / solids, Amorphous and crystalline solids, Unit cell in twodimensional

and three- dimensional lattices, Seven crystal systems and Bragg’s

equation, X-ray study of crystal structure, Bragg’s method. Calculation of density

of unit cell, packing in solids, No. of atoms per cubic unit cell. Point defects –

Schottky and Frenkel defects. Electrical and magnetic properties.

2. SURFACE CHEMISTRY: Adsorption, physical and chemical adsorption.

Adsorption of gases on solids, factors affecting the adsorption – pressure

(Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms) and temperature, Catalysis-types of

catalysis, autocatalysis. Colloidal state – colloidal solutions, classification of

colloidal solutions, protective colloids and Gold number emulsions – classification

of emulsions, micelles, cleansing action of soap, properties of colloids -Tyndall

effect, Brownian movement, Coagulation.

UNIT – 6

1. CHEMICAL KINETICS: Concept of reaction rate, factors affecting reaction

rates, Rate law, units of rate constant, Order and molecularity, methods of

determination of order of reaction, Integrated rate equations and half lives for

zero and first order reaction, Collision theory of reaction rates (elementary

ideas), concepts of activation energy (Arrhenius equation).

2. ELECTRO CHEMISTRY: Conductance in electrolytic solutions, Specific and

molar conductances- variation of conductance with concentration, Kohlrausch’s

law, application to calculation of equivalent conductance of weak electrolytes.

Electrolytes and non-electrolytes, redox reactions, electrolysis – some typical

examples of electrolysis viz; fused NaOH, brine solution, fused MgCl2, Faraday’s

laws of electrolysis, Galvanic and voltaic cells representation and notation of

electrochemical cells with and without salt bridge, Standard hydrogen electrode

and electrode potentials, electro chemical series, EMF of cell, Nernst equation

and its applications, calculation of EMF of electro chemical cells, Primary cell-dry

cell/Lechlanche cell, secondary cells – fuel cells – Hydrogen – Oxygen fuel cell.

UNIT – 7

Syllabus – Chemistry Section – C

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1. GROUP 13 ELEMENTS: General introduction, electronic configuration,

occurance, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical

reactivity, Anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron: –

Physical and chemical properties, uses, some important compounds: Borax

and Boric acid. Boron hydrides, aluminium – uses, reactions with acids and

alkalies, Alums.

2. GROUP 14 ELEMENTS: General introduction, electronic configuration,

occurrence, Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical

reactivity, Anomalous behavior of the first element of the group Carbon –

catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties and uses.

Similarities between carbon and silicon, uses of oxides of carbon, Important

compounds of silicon – silicon dioxide and a few uses of silicon tetrachloride,

silicones, silicates and zeolites (Elementary ideas) Fuel gases : Manufacture

and uses of producer gas and water gas.

3. GROUP 18 ELEMTNS (ZERO GROUP ELEMENTS): General introduction,

electronic configuration, occurrence, Isolation trends in physical and chemical

properties, uses, compounds of xenon oxides and xenon Fluorides (structures

only).

UNIT – 8

1. GROUP 15 ELEMENTS (V A GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence- physical

states of Nitrogen and Phosphorous; allotropy, catenation. electronic

configuration, oxidation states, General characteristics of hydrides, structure of

hydrides, general characteristics of oxides, general characteristics of halides,

Oxyacids of nitrogen, Oxyacids of phosphorous, preparation and uses of nitric

acid and ammonia, superphosphate of lime.

2. GROUP 16 ELEMENTS (VI GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic

configuration, oxidation states,physical states of Oxygen and Sulphur and their

structure, allotropy, general characteristics of hydrides, oxides and halides,

structural aspects of oxyacids of chalcogens, Ozone, uses of ozone, Sodium

thiosulphate, Sulphuric acid – industrial process of manufacture.

3. GROUP 17 ELEMENTS (VII A GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic

configuration and oxidation states, Physical states of halogens, I.P values,

electronegativity and electron affinity, bond energies, chemical reactivity,

oxidizing power of fluorine, chlorine, structural aspects of oxy acids of chlorine,

preparation, properties and uses of fluorine, chlorine and bleaching powder,

Interhalogen compounds -structures only.

UNIT – 9

Syllabus – Chemistry Section – C

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1. TRANSITION ELEMENTS: General introduction, electronic configuration,

Occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties

of first row transition elements- metallic character, ionization energy, Variable

oxidation states, atomic and ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic

property, interstitial compounds, Alloy formation. Preparation and properties of

KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, Ag2O, AgNO3, Ag2S2O3.

2. LANTHANIDES : Electronic configuration, variable oxidation states, chemical

reactivity and lanthanide contraction.

3. COORDINATION COMPOUNDS: Introduction, ligands, coordination number,

Werner’s theory of coordination compounds, Shapes of coordination compounds,

valence bond theory, IUPAC nomenclature of mono nuclear coordination

compounds, Bonding, isomerism, EAN rule, Importance of coordination

compounds in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals, Biological systems

(chromo proteins, haemoglobin, chlorophyll structures only).

UNIT – 10

1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF METALURGY: Principles and methods of extractionconcentration,

reduction by chemical and electrolytic methods and refining,

Occurrence and principles of extraction of copper, zinc, iron and silver. Process

of molten electrolysis to extract Al, Mg and Na. Extraction of gold and lead.

2. PRINCIPLES OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS: Group I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+,

Cu2+, Pb2+,Bi3+, Fe

3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); nitrate,

halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate and sulphide.

UNIT – 11

1. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Some basic principles and techniques: General

introduction, methods of purification, quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic

displacements in a covalent bond, Inductive effect, electrometric effect,

resonance and hyper conjugation, Fission of a covalent bond – homolytic and

heterolytic fissions, Types of reagents : Electrophiles, nucleophiles and free

radicals – examples and reactive intermediates, Common types of organic

reactions – substitution, addition. Elimination and rearrangement reactions with

examples. Shapes of simple organic molecules. Structural and geometrical

isomerism; optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric

centres (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded). Keto-enol tautomerism.

2. HYDROCARBONS : Classification of hydrocarbons, Alkanes – Nomenclature,

isomerism conformations (Ethane and butane), Methods of preparation of

Ethane, physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism

of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis of ethane, Cycloalkanes: Preparation

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and properties of cyclohexane, Alkenes: Nomenclature, structure of double bond

(ethene), physical properties, methods of preparation of ethylene, physical

properties, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen

halides (Markonikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation,

mechanism of electrophilic addition. Reaction with Baeyer’s reagent. AkynesPreparations

and properties of alkynes. Acidity of alkynes.

3. AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: Introduction – IUPAC nomenclature, Benzene ,

resonance, aromaticity chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic

substitution – nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel crafts alkylation

and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono substituted

Benzene carcinogenicity and toxicity. Effect of O,M,P directing groups in

monosubstituted benzene.

UNIT – 12

1. HALOALKANES: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, Ethyl chloride and

chloroform, preparation, physical and chemical properties, Mechanism of

substitution reactions SN1&SN2 reactions. Reactions of Grignard reagent.

2. HALOARENES: Nature of C – X bond, Chlorobenzene substitution reactions

(directive influence of halogen for mono substituted compounds only).

Nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes.

3. ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS:

ALCOHOLS: Nomenclature, methods of preparation of ethyl alcohol, physical

and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), Identification of primary,

secondary, tertiary alcohols, Mechanism of dehydration. Uses of some important

compounds – methanol and ethanol

PHENOLS: Nomenclature, methods of preparation of phenol, Physical and

chemical properties, Acidic nature of phenol, Electrophilic substitution reactions,

Uses of phenols. Comparison of acidic nature of substituted phenols.

ETHERS: Nomenclature, Methods of preparation of diethyl ether, physical and

chemical properties, uses.

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UNIT – 13

1. ALDEHYDES, KETONES AND CARBOXYLLIC ACIDS:

ALDEHYDES AND KETONES : Nomenclature, Nature of carbonyl group,

Methods of preparation of acetaldehyde and acetone, physical and chemical

properties, Mechanism of nucleophilic addition, Reactivity of alpha- hydrogen in

aldehydes, uses. Distinction of Aldehydes and ketones. Reactions of

Benzaldehyde.

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS: Nomenclature, acidic nature, Methods of preparation of

acetic acid, Physical and chemical properties, Uses. Comparison of acidic strength of

aliphatic and aromatic acids. Preparations and properties of Benzoic acid.

2. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN

Preparation and properties of Nitro compounds.

AMINES: Nomenclature, Classification, Structure, methods of preparation of

aniline, physical and chemical properties, Uses, Identification of primary,

secondary and tertiary amines and aromatic amine (Aniline). Comparison of

basic strength of aliphatic amines and substituted anilines.

DIAZONIUM SALTS: Preparation, Chemical reactions and importance in

synthetic organic chemistry, Uses of azodyes. Azo Coupling reactions of

diazonium salts of aromatic amines.

3. PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Detection of elements (N, S, Halogens);

detection and identification of the following functional groups: alcoholic and

phenolic, aldehyde and ketone, carboxyl, amino and nitro. Chemical methods

of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.

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UNIT – 14

1. POLYMERS: Classification of polymers, addition, condensation, copolymerization,

Natural rubber, vulcanization of rubber, synthetic rubber, molecular weights of

polymers – number average and weight average molecular weights (definitions

only). Bio – polymers, bio-degradable polymers, Some commercially important

polymers like polythene, nylon, polyesters and Bakelite.

2. BIOMOLECULES:

CARBOHYDRATES: Classification (aldoses and ketoses), Monosaccharides

(glucose and fructose), Oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose),

Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) and Importance.

AMINOACIDS AND PROTEINS: Elementary idea of amino acids, peptide,

Polypeptides, proteins Primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure

and quaternary structures (qualitative ideas only). Denaturation of proteins,

enzymes.

VITAMINS: Classification, Functions in bio systems.

NUCLEIC ACIDS: Types of nucleic acids, primary building blocks of nucleic acids,

Chemical composition of DNA & RNA, Structure of D.N.A, genetic code.

UNIT – 15

1. CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE : Uses of chemicals in medicine: Analgesics –

narcotics (morphine, codeine), Non- narcotics (Asprin, Ibuprofen); Antipyretic

(analgin, Phenacetin, paracetamol), Tranquilizers (barbituric acid, luminal,

secpnal, valium, serotonin), Antiseptics(chioroxylenol, bithional), disinfectants

(formalin, formaldehyde), Anti-microbials (lysozyme, lactic acid, hydrochloric

acid in stomach). Antifertilitydrugs, Antibiotics (pencillin, chloramphenicol,

sulphadiazine), Antacids (omeprazole, lansoprazole), antihistamines (histidine),

Chemicals in food preservatives (sodium benzoate, potassium metabisulphite

etc.), Artificial sweetening agents (aspartame, alitane, sucralose).

2. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: Definition of terms: Air, water and soil pollution.

Oxides of carbon – carbon monoxide, Oxides of Sulphur and Nitrogen, Chloro

Fluoro Carbons, Chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric

pollutants, acidrains, Ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer.

Green house effect and global warming, Pollution due to industrial wastes,

Green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution.