GITAM GAT exam syllabus – Gandhi Institute of technology


GITAM GAT exam syllabus – Gandhi Institute of technology – The entrance test or general admission test is conducted by the university of Gandhi Institute of Technology and management to place students into engineering and management seats in the college based on merit and score rank of the examination.the syllabus includes four sections of the paper divided into Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology.


GITAM GAT exam syllabus

Mathematics Section – A

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UNIT – 1
SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS: Sets and their representation, Union,
Intersection and compliment of sets, and their algebraic properties,
power set, Relation, Types of relation, Equivalence relation, Functions,
one-one, into and onto functions, composite functions.
UNIT – 2
MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION: Principle of Mathematical Induction and its
simple applications.
MATHEMATICAL REASONING: Statements, Logical operations and, or,
implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of tautology, contradiction,
Converse and Contra positive.
UNIT – 3
Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions.
Reminder and Factor Theorems, common Roots, General Quadratic
expression, Finding the range of a function, Location of roots, Solving
inequalities using location of roots.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS: The relation between the roots and coefficients
in an equation; Solving the equation when two or more roots of it are
connected by certain relations; Equations with real coefficients, imaginary
roots occur in conjugate pairs and its consequences; Transformation of
equations, Reciprocal equations.
UNIT – 4
Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle
term, properties of Binomial coefficients and simple applications.
UNIT – 5
SEQUENCES AND SERIES: Arithmetic and Geometric progressions,
insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers.
Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum to n terms of special series
2 3 ? ? ? n n n , ,
. Arithmetic – Geometric progression.
Syllabus – Mathematics Section – A
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UNIT – 6
Definition of linear and circular permutations; To find the number of
permutations of n dissimilar things taken ‘r’ at a time. To prove
? ? ? ?
1 1
r r
n n r n
? ? ? ?
from the first principles; To find number of
Permutations of n Dissimilar things taken ‘r’ at a time when repetition
of things is allowed any number of times.; To find number of circular
Permutations of n Different things taken all at a time.; To find the number of
Permutations of ‘n’ things taken ‘r’ at a time when some of them are alike
and the rest are dissimilar; To find the number of combinations of ‘n’
dissimilar things taken ‘r’ at a time; To prove i) If
r C s
n n C
then n = r+s or
r=s ii)
? ?
r r Cr
C C n n n
? ? ? .
UNIT – 7
MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS: Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of
matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of
determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using
determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using
determinants and elementary transformations, Test for consistency and
solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using
determinants and matrices, and rank of matrix.
UNIT – 8
VECTOR ALGEBRA: Algebra of Vectors – angle between two non-zero
vectors – Linear combination of vectors – Geometrical applications of vectors.
Scalar and vector product of two, three and four vectors and their
THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY: Co-ordinates of a point in space,
Distance between two points, Section formula, Direction ratios and direction
cosines, Angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest
distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in
different forms, Intersection of a line and a plane, Coplanar lines.
UNIT- 10
TRIGONOMETRY: Trigonometric ratios, Compound angles, multiple and
sub-multiple angle, Transformations, Trigonometric expansions using
Demovier’s Theorem. Trigonometric equations, Inverse Trigonometry and
Heights and distances(only 2D problems).
Syllabus – Mathematics Section – A
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UNIT – 11
PROPERTIES OF TRIANGLES: Sine rule, cosine rule, Tangent rule,
projection rule, Half angle formulae and area of triangle. In-circle and excircle
of a Triangle. Pedal Triangle, Ex-central Triangle, Geometry relation of
Ex-centres, Distance between centres of Triangle. m-n Theorem, problems
and quadrilateral, regular polygon, solution of Triangle (Ambiguous cases).
COMPLEX NUMBERS: Definitions, Integral Power of iota(i), Algebraic
operations with complex numbers, square root of a complex number,
Geometrical representation of a complex number, Modz, Arg of Z, polar term
of Z, Eulors form of Z, Conjugate of Z, Properties of conjugate, solving
complex equations, Demovre’s Theorem, Properties of ?1
, ?1
, ?1
Geometrical applications of complex numbers.
UNIT – 12
functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric,
logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple
functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum,
difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of
trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and
implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two.
UNIT – 13
APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES: Rate of change of quantities, Errors
and approximations, Tangent and normals, maxima and minima of functions
of one variable, mean value theorems (Rolle’s, lagrange’s, Intermediate
value theorem).
UNIT – 14
INDEFINITE INTEGRATION: Fundamental Integration formulae, Method
of integration, Integration by parts, Integration by substitution,
Integration of Rational and Irrational Algebraic functions, Integral of the
form ? ?
p?? Integration using Euler’s substitution. Reduction
formulae over indefinite integrals, Integration using differentiation.
UNIT – 15
APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRALS: Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental
Theorem of integral calculus. Problems on all the properties of definite
integrals. Libnitz rule. Determining areas of the regions bounded by curves.
Syllabus – Mathematics Section – A
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UNIT – 16
CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY: Locus: Definition of locus; Equation of locus
and its illustration on complete geometry; Translation & Rotation of axes
and its illustrations
STRAIGHT LINES : Different forms of straight lines, distance of a point from
a line, lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, angular
bisectors of two lines, Foot of perpendicular, Image point (vs) point, point
(vs) line and line (vs) line. Concurrences of lines, centroid, orthocenter,
incentre and circumcentre of triangle.
UNIT – 17
CIRCLES: Equation of a circle-Standard form-centre and radius-Equation of
a circle with a given line segment as diameter- Equation of circle through
three non-colinear points-parametric equations of a circle. Position of a point
in the plane of the circle- power of a point-Def. of a tangent-Length of
tangent. Position of a straight line in the plane of the circle-condition for a
straight line to be a tangent– chord joining two points on a circle – equation
of the tangent at a point on the circle – point of contact – Equation of
normal. Chord of contact-Pole, Polar-conjugate points and conjugate linesEquation
of chord with given mid point. Relative positions of two circlescircles
touching each other-externally, internally, common tangents-points
of similitude-Equation of tangents from an external point. Angle between two
intersecting circles. Conditions for Orthogonalities. Concepts of Radical
axis and Radical Centre.
UNIT – 18
a) PARABOLA: Conic sections-parabola-Equation of parabola in standard
form-Different forms of parabola; parametric equations. Equation of tangent
and normal at a point on the parabola (cartesian and parametric)- condition
for a straight line to be a tangent.
b) ELLIPSE: Equation of Ellipse in standard form, parametric equations.
Equation of tangent and normal at a point on the Ellipse (Cartesian and
parametric) condition for a straight line to be a tangent.
c) HYPERBOLA: Equation of hyperbola in standard form-parametric
equations, Rectangular Hyperbola.; equation of tangent and normal at a
point on the hyperbola (Cartesian and parametric) condition for a straight
line to be a tangent. Asymptotes.
Syllabus – Mathematics Section – A
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UNIT – 19
DIFFERENTIAL EQUALITIONS: Ordinary differential equations, their order
and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential
equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of
homogeneous, Non-Homogenous, linear differential equations. Bernoulli’s
Equation, Orthogonal Trajectory. Applications of Differential equations.
UNIT – 20
PROBABILITY: Random experiment, random event, elementary events,
exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Sample space, Sample events,
Addition theorem on Probability. Dependent and independent events,
multiplication theorem, Baye’s theorem.
Distributive functions, probability distributive functions, Mean, variance of a
random variable; Bernoulli trials and Binomial distributions.
STATISTICS: Measures of Dispersion; Calculation of Mean, Median, Mode
of grouped and ungrouped data, Calculation of Standard Deviation,
Variance and Mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.



Syllabus – Biology Section – A
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UNIT – 1
Diversity in living world:
1. What is living? Biodiversity, Need for classification. Three domains of life.
Taxonomy & systematic concepts of species and taxonomical hierarchy.
Binomial nomenclature tools for study of Taxonomy, Herbaria, Botanical
2. Five kingdom classifications, Silent features and classification of Monera,Protista
and Fuji into major groups.
3. Salient features and classification of plants into major groups. Algae (spirogyra)
Bryophytes (Funenia), Ptenidophytes (Pteris), Gymnosperms (Cycas).
UNIT – 2
External morphology:
Root, Stem, Leaf, Inflorescence, Flower, Fruit and Seed.
UNIT – 3
Internal Morphology:
1. Histology: Meristems, Simple tissues, Complex tissues and special tissues.
2. Tissue System: Epidermal, Ground and Vascular tissue systems.
3. Anatomy: Anatomy of Dicot and monocot root, dicot and monocot stem, dicoct
and monocot leaf, secondary growth in dicot stem and dicot root.
UNIT – 4
Cell Biology:
1. Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life. Structure of prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cell, plant and animal cell. Cell wall, cell membrane, cell organelles
structure and function 1 chromosomes.
2. Biomolecules: Structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic
acids, enzymes.
3. Cell division: Cell cycle, Mitosis and meiosis.
Syllabus – Biology Section – A
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UNIT – 5
Plant Taxonomy:
Introduction: Principles of plant classification, brief account of Bentham &
Hooker’s system.
Families: Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Solenacrae, Liliaceae poaceae.
UNIT – 6
1. Reproduction organisms, Modes of reproduction. Asexual and sexual. Asexual
regproduction – Binary fission, Sporulation, Budding, gemmule, Fragmentation,
Vegetative propagation in plants.
2. Sexual reproduction flowering plants. Development of male and female
gametophytes. Pollination types, agents. Out breeding devices, Double
fertilization, post fertilization changes. Development of endosperm, embryo and
seed. Apomixis, parthenocerpy, polyembryony.

UNIT – 7
1. Bacteria and Viruses
2. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial
production, sewage treatment , energy generation and as biocontrol agents and
UNIT – 8
Human welfare:
Improvement in food production. Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein,
Mushroom cultivation, Biofortification.
UNIT – 9
Biotechnology and its applications:
1. Principles and process of Biotechnology, Genetic engineering.
2. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture and health. Human insulin and
vaccine production, genetherapy, Genetically modified organisms, Bt. Crops,
Trasgeric animals, Biosafety issues – Biopiracy and patents.
Syllabus – Biology Section – A
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UNIT – 10
Plant Physiology:
1. Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell
transport – Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water
relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance
transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root
pressure and guttation. Transpiration – Opening and closing of stomata;
Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem
transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (Brief mention).
2. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their
role; Deficiency symptoms: Mineral Toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as
a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism; Nitrogen cycle,
biological nitrogen fixation.
3. Photosynthesis : Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition, Site of
photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary
idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non
cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3
and C4 pathways;
4. Factors affecting photosynthesis.
5. Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation
(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy
relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways;
Respiratory quotient.
6. Plant growth and development : Seed germination; Phases of plant growth
and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation
and redifferentiation ; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell;
Growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed
dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
Syllabus – Biology Section – A
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UNIT – 1
Animal Classification:
1. Salient features (3 to 5) and two examples of Non-chordate phyla.
2. Salient features (3 to 5) and two examples of chordate classes.
UNIT – 2
Structural Organisation in animals:
1. Cockroach: Brief account of morphology, anatomy and functions of digestive
circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive systems.
2. Animal tissues: Epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues.
UNIT – 3
Human Physiology-Digestive and Respiratory systems:
1. Digestive System : Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive
enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and
assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; caloric value of proteins,
carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders-PEM,
indigestion, constipation, vomiting, Jaundice, diarrhea.
2. Respiratory system: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory
system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans –
Exchange of gases; transport of gases and regulation of respiration; Respiratory
volumes; Disorders related respiration-Asthma Emphysema, Occupational
respiratory disorders.
UNIT – 4
Human Physiology: Circulatory and Excretory Systems:
1. Circulatory System: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of
blood; composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system –
Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, Cardiac output, ECG,
Double circulation; Regulation of Cardiac activity, Disorders of circulatory
system – Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
2. Excretory System : Modes of Excretion – Ammonotelism, ureotelism,
Uricotelism; Human excretory system – Structures and function; Urine
formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of Kidney function – Renin – angiotensin,
Atrial Natriuretic Factor; ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in
excretion; Disorders; Uremia, Renal Failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and
artificial Kidney.
Syllabus – Biology Section – A
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UNIT – 5
Human Physiology–Locomotion & Movement and Neuro Endocrine System:
1. Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement – ciliary, Flagellor, muscular;
Skeletal muscle – Contractile proteins muscle contraction; Disorder of muscles.
Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular distrophy.
2. Skeletal System and its functions: joints; Disorders of skeletal system –
Osteoporosis, Arthritis, Gout.
3. Nervous System: Neurons and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central
nervous system, Peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system;
Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs:
Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
4. Endocrine System: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system
– Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas,
Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary idea); Role of hormones as
messengers and regulators, Hypo and hyperactivity and related disorders(e.g.
Dwarfism, Acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes,
Addison’s disease).
UNIT – 6
Human Physiology – Reproduction:
1. Human Reproduction: Male and Female reproductive systems; Microscopic
anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis – Spermatogenesis & oogenesis;
Menstrual Cycle; Fertilization, Embryo development upto blastocyst formation,
implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition
(Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
2. Reproductive Health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually
transmitted diseases (STDs); Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception
and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and
assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT ( Elementary idea for
general awareness);
Syllabus – Biology Section – A
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UNIT – 7
1) Heredity and Variations: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviation from Mendelism –
Incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood
groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome
Theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – In
humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance –
Hemophilia, Colourblindness; mendelian disorders in humans – Thalassemia;
Chromosomal disorders in humans – Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and
Klinefelter’s Syndromes.
2) Molecular basis of Inheritance : Search for genetic material and DNA as
genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication;
Central dogma; Transcription; genetic code; translation Gene expression and
regulation – Lac operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger
3) Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological
evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular,
evidence – Darwin’s contribution , Modern synthetic theory of Evolution,
Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural
selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift,
Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation ; Human evolution.
UNIT – 8
Human Health and Diseases:
1) Pathogens; Parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis,
Typhoid Pneumonia, Common Cold, Amoebiasis, Ringworm).
2) Basic concepts of immunology – Vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS.
3) Adolescence, Drug and alcohol abuse.
Syllabus – Biology Section – A
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UNIT – 9
Ecology and Environment:
1) Organisms and environment : Habitat and niche; Population and Ecological
adaptations; Population Interactions – Mutualism, Competition, Predation,
Parasitism; Population attributes – Growth, birth rate and death rate, age
2) Ecosystem: Patterns, Components; Productivity and decomposition; Energy
flow; Pyramids of numbers, biomass, energy, Nutrient cycling (carbon and
phosphorous); Ecological succession; plant communities; Ecological services –
carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
3) Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of
Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity
conservation; Hotspots; endangered organisms, extinction; Red Data Book;
Biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
4) Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its
control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive
Waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion;
Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing
environmental issues.



UNIT – 1
1. UNITS AND DIMENSIONS :Units for fundamental and derived quantities;
Systems of Units; SI system of units – rules for writing unit, derived units, multiple
units and sub multiple units in SI system; Measurement for quantitative study,
Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; Errors due to external causes –
constant type, systematic type and environmental type; Errors due to imperfections
in experimental techniques/procedure/personal/observation – random errors, gross
errors, absolute errors, mean absolute error and relative error percentage error;
errors due to addition, subtraction, multiplication division and powers of observed
quantities; Significant figures, Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional
formulae, applications and limitations of dimensional analysis.
2. ELEMENTS OF VECTORS: Classification of physical quantities as vectors and
scalars Geometrical representation of vectors – Addition and subtraction of vectors.
Laws of addition of vectors – Equal and null vectors. Unit vectors – Unit vectors in
Cartesian co-ordinate system – position vector and its magnitude. Parallelogram
law of vectors – Expression for the resultant vector. Triangle law and polygon law of
vectors – concept of relative velocity- application to relative motion of a boat in a
river. Multiplication of a vector with a scalar – Scalar product with examples of work
and energy – Vector product with examples of torque and angular momentum –
Vector and Scalar product of unit vectors.
UNIT – 2
1. KINEMATICS : Force and Inertia, Newton’s Law of Motion, Momentum, Impulse.
Concept of resultant force, equilibrium of concurrent forces. Force of Friction,
Types of friction, Types of Coefficient of friction. Angle of friction, Angle of repose.
Motion of a body on a smooth and rough horizontal surface. Motion of a body on
a smooth and rough inclined plane. Law of Conservation of Linear momentum and
its applications. Motion in a straight line, speed and velocity. Uniform non
uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity, Uniformly accelerated
motion. Position-time graph, Velocity-time graph, Acceleration-time graphs relation
for uniformly accelerated motion. Motion of freely falling body, Vertically projected
body. Projectile motion.
2. WORK-POWER-ENERGY: Work done by a constant force and a variable force.
Power, Types of Energies: Mechanical Energy, Potential energy and Kinetic energy.
Work energy theorem. Conservative and Non-Cons
GAT-UGTP-2017 Syllabus – Physics
Section – B Page 2 of 6
UNIT – 3
1. CENTRE OF MASS: Introduction, Centre of mass, difference between centre
of mass and centre of gravity. Co-ordinates of centre of mass. Centre of mass of
particles along a line, center of mass of system of particles in a plane, center of
mass of system of particles in space. Centre of mass of rigid body with
homogenous distribution of mass of a thin rod, circular ring, disc and sphere.
Motion of centre of mass (Velocity and acceleration of center of mass)
characteristics of centre of mass, laws of motion of the centre of mass, velocity
and acceleration. Explosion – motion of the centre of mass of earth – moon
2. COLLISIONS: Introduction – Elastic and inelastic collisions. Collisions in one
dimension (elastic and inelastic) body at rest, bodies moving in same direction and
opposite directions. Co- efficient of restitution definition. Equation for height
attained for freely falling body after number of rebounds on floor. Two
dimensional collision.
UNIT – 4
1. ROTATORY MOTION: Introduction, uniform circular motion, concept of angular
displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration, relation between
linear velocity and angular velocity, centripetal acceleration and Centripetal
force, torque, couple. Moment of Inertia: Perpendicular axis theorem. Parallel axis
theorem. MI of a thin rod, uniform disc, rectangular lamina, solid and hollow
spheres, circular ring and cylinder. Angular Momentum: Relation between
angular momentum and torque, law of conservation of angular momentum with
examples. Motion in vertical circle.
Rolling without shipping and toppling.
2. GRAVITATION: Basic forces in nature; The Universal law of gravitation; Nature of
gravity; Relation between Universal gravitational constant (G) and acceleration due
to gravity(g); variation of “g” with altitude, depth, latitude and shape of earth;
Limitations of Newton’s third Law. Idea of inertial and non-inertial frames – Inertial
and gravitational masses – Gravitational Potential and Gravitational Potential
Energy. Escape velocity, orbital velocity and relation between them – Geo
stationary Satellites, their uses.
GAT-UGTP-2017 Syllabus – Physics
Section – B Page 3 of 6
UNIT – 5
1. ELASTICITY: Elasticity & Plasticity – Stress and Strain – Hooke’s Law, Moduli of
elasticity (Y, n, K) – Poission’s ratio – definition and its limit; behaviour of wire
under gradually increasing load – elastic fatigue, strain Energy.
2. SURFACE TENSION: Surface tension – definition and applications, Molecular
theory of surface tension, surface energy. Angle of contact, Capillarity
Determination of surface tension by capillary rise method – theory and experiment.
Effect of temperature on surface tension, Excess pressure in liquid drops and soap
3. FLUID MECHANICS: Introduction, Principle of Buoyancy, pressure due to fluid
column. Pascal’s Law and its applications. Stream line flow, Turbulent Flow,
Reynolds number, Bernoulli’s theorem. Applications- aerodynamic lift, motion
of a spinning ball. Viscosity, coefficient of viscosity, effect of temperature
on viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation. Motion of objects through fluids, Stoke’s
law, terminal velocity.
UNIT – 6
1. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER: Temperature and heat, measurement of
temperature. Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases. Specific heat
capacity, Colorimetry, change of state, latent heat, Triple point. Heat transfer,
Conduction, Convection and Radiation. Black body radiation, Stefan’s Law,
Wien’s Displacement Law, Newton’s Law of Cooling.
2. THERMODYNAMICS: Thermal Equilibrium, Zeroth Law of thermodynamics.
Heat internal energy and work. First law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic
processes – Isothermal, Adiabatic, Isobaric, Isochoric, Quasi static processes.
Second law of thermodynamics; Reversible and Irreversible processes. Carnot
engine and refrigerator.
3. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES: Gas Laws, ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of
gases – assumptions, pressure of an ideal gas. Kinetic interpretation of
temperature, RMS speed of a gas molecule. Degree of Freedom, Law of
equipartition of energy. Specific heats of gases. Mean free path, Avogadro’s
GAT-UGTP-2017 Syllabus – Physics
Section – B Page 4 of 6
UNIT – 7
1. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION: Periodic motion – Period, Frequency,
Displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion
and its equations, phase. Oscillations of simple pendulum, Oscillations of a
spring – Restoring force and force constant. Energy in S.H.M – Kinetic and
potential energies. Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.
2. WAVE MOTION: Longitudinal and transverse waves, Equation for a progressive
wave, principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves. Formation of
stationary waves on a stretched string.
3. SOUND: Characteristics of sound – speed of sound in solids, liquids and gases
Standing waves in Organ Pipes – Open Pipes, Closed Pipes, Fundamental
frequency, Overtones, Harmonics, Beats. Doppler Effect: Applications and
limitations of Doppler Effect. Echoes.
UNIT – 8
1. RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS: Reflection of light, Reflection of
light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula. Reflection of light, Snell’s
Law, Total internal reflection. Lens formula, Magnification power of a lens,
Combination of lenses, Culling of a lens, Silvering of a lens. Refraction through a
prism. Microscope and astronomical telescope and their magnifying powers.
2. WAVE OPTICS: Huygens Principle and wavefront. Law of reflection and refraction
using Huygens principle. Interference of light, Young’s double slit experiment,
Fringe width. Diffraction of light, Diffraction due to a single slit, Width of central
maxima. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Polarization of light,
Plane of polarized light. Brewster’s law. Polaroids and their uses.
GAT-UGTP-2017 Syllabus – Physics
Section – B Page 5 of 6
UNIT – 9
1. ELECTROSTATICS AND CAPACITORS: Charges – conservation of charge and
additive property of charges. Coulomb’s Law: Permittivity of Free Space and
Permittivity of Medium – Force between two point charges. Force due to multiple
charges – Principle of Superposition with examples. Electric field – Electric lines
of force, their properties – Electric intensity definition – Electric intensity due to
isolated charge and due to -multiple charges. Electrostatic Potential – Definition of
Electrostatic Potential in an electric field – Potential due to single charge – multiple
charges – Electrostatic potential energy – Relation between electrostatic potential
and electric intensity. Electric Flux Definition, Gauss’ Law – Statement of
Gauss’ Law, Application of Gauss’ Law to find electric intensity and electrostatic
Potential due to continuous charge distribution of Infinite Long wire, Infinite Plane
Sheet and Spherical Shell. Capacitance – Definition of Electrical Capacity of a
Conductor – Capacitance – Dielectric constant – Definition of Condenser, its uses –
Parallel plate Condenser – Formula for Capacitance of Parallel Plate Condenser,
Dielectric – Dielectric Strength – Effect of dielectric on capacitance of capacitors.
Capacitors in series and in parallel – derivation of the equivalent capacitance for the
above cases. Energy stored in a Condenser – Effect of dielectric on Energy of
Condenser – Types of capacitors – their uses.
2. CURRENT ELECTRICITY: Electric current – Flow of Electric charges in a metallic
conductor – Drift velocity and mobility – Relation between electric current and
drift velocity. Ohm’s Law: Ohmic and Non Ohmic elements with examplesconductance-specific
resistance-variation of resitivity with temperature-variation of
resistance with temperature – thermistors, Colour code for resistors. E.M.F. of Cell –
Internal resistance and back E. M.F. – Difference between EMF of a Cell and
potential difference. Electrical energy, Power definition of KW hr. Kirchhoffs laws:
Statement of Kirchhoff’s voltage law – Kirchhoffs current law – Application to
Wheatstone bridge – condition for balancing – Meter bridge – Determination of
resistance of a conductor using meter bridge. Principle of Potentiometer
determination of internal resistance and E.M.F. of a cell using potentiometer.
Series and parallel combination of cells – Derivation of equivalent EMF for the
above cases.
3. CR CIRCUITS (DC ONLY): Growth of charge in C-R series circuit. Decay of
charge in C-R series circuit. Time constant of C-R circuit.
UNIT – 10
1. ELECTROMAGNETISM: Biot-savart Law – Ampere Law – Magnetic field near a long
straight wire and magnetic field at the center of a circular coil carrying current (with
derivation) – Field on the axis of a circular coil carrying current (with expressions
only)Tangent Galvanometer – principle and working – Definition of reduction factor
– force on a moving charge in a magnetic field – force on a current carrying
conductor in a magnetic field – force between two long straight parallel conductors
GAT-UGTP-2017 Syllabus – Physics
Section – B Page 6 of 6
carrying current – definition of ampere – Fleming’s left hand rule-current loop as a
magnetic dipole, force and torque on current loop in a uniform magnetic field –
magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron – principle , construction and
working of a moving coil galvanometer –conversion of moving coil galvanometer
into ammeter and voltmeter – comparison of M.C.G with T.G.
2. MAGNETISM: Magnetic moment, Magnetic moment of bar magnet. Magnetic
induction on the axial and equatorial line of a bar magnet. Couple on a bar magnet
in a magnetic field. Elements of Earth’s magnetism dip, declination. Dia, Para,
Ferro magnetic substances.
emf and induced current. Lenz’s Law, Fleming’s right hand rule. Self induction,
Mutual induction, Motional emf.
Alternating currents. Peak, RMS and average values of AC and AV. Series L-R, CR,
L-C and L-C-R Circuit. Reactance, impedance. Resonance of L-C-R circuit.
Quality factor, power in AC circuits, Transformers.
UNIT- 11
1. DUALNATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATION: Dual nature of radiation.
Photoelectric effect, Hertz’s and Lenard’s observation. Einstein’s photoelectric
equation particle nature of light. Matter wave’s and de-Broglie’s theory,
Davison-Germer experiment.
2. ATOMS AND NUCLEI: Rutherford’s alpha-particle scattering experiment. Bohr’s
atomic model, Hydrogen spectrum, energy levels. Composition of nucleus, atomic
mass unit, isotopes, isobars, isotones. Radio activity, Radioactive disintegration
law ?. ? and ? decay. Mass defect, Binding energy, average binding energy. Binding
energy curve. Mass energy relation. Nuclear fission and fusion.
Extrinsic semiconductors (n and p type) Junction diode – p-n junction, depletion
layer and barrier potential, forward and reverse bias – current voltage
characteristics of junction diode – p-n diode as half wave and full wave rectifier,
(only qualitative treatment) Zener diode as a voltage regulator – I-V characteristics
of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode – Transistor – function of emitter,
base and collector – p-n-p, n-p-n transistors – Biasing of transistors, current,
voltage – Characteristics of transistor in CE configuration – Transistor as common
emitter amplifier (qualitative treatment). Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and
NOR) – Communication systems; Elements of communication systems (block
diagrams only) Bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data) bandwidth of
Transmission medium – Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere,
sky and space wave propagation – Modulation – Need for modulation.


Section – C: CHEMISTRY

UNIT – 1
1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE: Characteristics of Electron, Proton and Neutron,
RutherFord’s model of atom – Nature of electromagnetic theory – Plancks
Quantum Theory, Explanation of photoelectric effect – Features of atomic
Spectra – Characteristics of Hydrogen spectrum, Bohr’s theory of structure of
atom, Bohr’s explanation of spectralines, failure of Bohr’s theory – Wave particle
nature of electron – de Brogile’s hypothesis, Heisensbergs uncertainly principle,
Important features of the Quantam mechanical model of atom, Quantum
numbers, concept of orbitals – Expressing atomic orbitals interms of quantum
numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, Aufbau principle, paulis exclusion
principle, Hunds’.rule of maximum multiplicity. Electronic configuration of
atoms, explanation of stability of half – filled and completely filled orbitals.
2. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY: Composition of Nucleus, Isotopes, Isotones, Isobars,
Isodiaphers, Factors effecting nuclear stability, mass defect, binding energy, N/P
ratio. Radioactive disintegration and its rate – Half life and average life, Types of
nuclear reactors – Fission and Fussion with examples one each. Radioactive
isotopes and their applications – Iodine 131, Cobalt 60, Sodium 24, C14 and
P30-Properties of ? ? and ? rays.
3. CHEMICAL BONDING: Orbital overlap and covalent bond, Ionic bond and
Fajan’s rules, Lattice energy, Hybridisation involving S, P and d orbitals,
MOT(Homo nuclear diatomic species only), H-bond, Dipolemoment, VSEPR
theory and shapes of molecules.
UNIT – 2
Concept of grouping of elements in accordance with their properties, The periodic
law, The significance of atomic number and electronic configuration as the basis
for periodic classification – Classification of elements into s,p,d, f blocks and their
main characteristics – Classification of elements based on their properties.
2. HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS : Position of hydrogen in the periodic table.
Occurance, isotopes of hydrogen, Preparation, properties and uses (including as
fuel) of hydrogen. Reactions of hydrogen with different types of elements
leading to Ionic, molecular and non-stoichiometric hydrides, Physical and
chemical properties of water and heavy water, hydrogen peroxide – Methods of
preparation, physical and chemical properties – oxidation – reduction,
decomposition and disproportionate and addition reactions. Detection of
hydrogen peroxide -structure and uses of Hydrogen peroxide.
Syllabus – Chemistry Section – C
GAT-UGTP-2018 Page 2 of 8
3. ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS: General introduction, electronic
configuration, occurrence, anamolous properties of first element in each group,
diagonal relationship, trends in properties like Ionisation enthalpy, atomic and
ionic radii, reactivity with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and water. Preparation
and properties and uses of the compounds sodium hydroxide, salts of oxoacids,
sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium chloride, biological
importance of sodium and potassium, preparation and uses of CaO, CaCO3 and
CaSO4 , Industrial uses of lime and limestone – Biological importance of Mg and
UNIT – 3
1. STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS: Grahams Law of diffusion,
Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behavior, Emperical
derivation of Gas equation, Ideal gas equation. Kinetic molecular theory of
gases, Kinetic gas equation (No derivation) and deduction of gas laws from
kinetic gas equation, Distribution of molecular velocities – types of molecular
velocities, behavior of real gases, Deviation from ideal behavior, compressibility
factor Vs pressure diagrams of real Conditions for liquefication of gases, critical
temperature, Liquid state – properties of liquids in terms of Intermolecular
attractions, Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (Quantitative Idea
only. No mathematical derivation).
types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive
properties, state functions, First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and
enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, Exothermic and endothermic
reactions. Measurement of U and H, Enthalpies of bond dissociation,
combustion, neutralization, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase
transition, ionization and dilution, Thermo-chemical equations.
Hess’s law of constant heat summation, Driving force for a spontaneous process,
Thermodynamic representation of criteria of spontaneity in terms of entropy,
entropy as a state function, Gibbs free energy, Gibbs free energy change for
spontaneous, non spontaneous process and equilibrium process.
UNIT – 4
1. SOLUTIONS: Classification of solutions, Molarity Normality, Molality, Mole
fraction, Dilute solutions, vapour pressure, Raoult’s Law, Limitations of Raoults
Law Colligative properties, relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of
boiling point, depression in freezing point, Osmosis and osmotic pressure, theory
of dilute solutions, determination of molar masses using colligative properties,
abnormal molecular mass.
2. IONIC EQUILIBRIUM: Lowry – Bronsted acids and bases theory, Lewis
theory, limitations of Lewis theory, Ionic equilibrium, ionization of acids and
Syllabus – Chemistry Section – C
GAT-UGTP-2018 Page 3 of 8
bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionic product of water.
Concept of pH
, Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), hydrolysis constant, buffer
solutions, solubility product and common ion effect with illustrative examples.
3. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM: Equilibrium in physical and chemical process,
Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, Equilibrium constant,
Factors affecting equilibrium, Relation between Kp and Kc, Le- Chatlier’s
principle, applications to the industrial processes like (I) ammonia – Haber’s
process (2) H2SO4-Contact process.
UNIT – 5
1. SOLID STATE: Classification of solids based on different binding forces such as
molecular, ionic, covalent solids and metallic solids, Treatment of metallic bond
and metallic / solids, Amorphous and crystalline solids, Unit cell in twodimensional
and three- dimensional lattices, Seven crystal systems and Bragg’s
equation, X-ray study of crystal structure, Bragg’s method. Calculation of density
of unit cell, packing in solids, No. of atoms per cubic unit cell. Point defects –
Schottky and Frenkel defects. Electrical and magnetic properties.
2. SURFACE CHEMISTRY: Adsorption, physical and chemical adsorption.
Adsorption of gases on solids, factors affecting the adsorption – pressure
(Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms) and temperature, Catalysis-types of
catalysis, autocatalysis. Colloidal state – colloidal solutions, classification of
colloidal solutions, protective colloids and Gold number emulsions – classification
of emulsions, micelles, cleansing action of soap, properties of colloids -Tyndall
effect, Brownian movement, Coagulation.
UNIT – 6
1. CHEMICAL KINETICS: Concept of reaction rate, factors affecting reaction
rates, Rate law, units of rate constant, Order and molecularity, methods of
determination of order of reaction, Integrated rate equations and half lives for
zero and first order reaction, Collision theory of reaction rates (elementary
ideas), concepts of activation energy (Arrhenius equation).
2. ELECTRO CHEMISTRY: Conductance in electrolytic solutions, Specific and
molar conductances- variation of conductance with concentration, Kohlrausch’s
law, application to calculation of equivalent conductance of weak electrolytes.
Electrolytes and non-electrolytes, redox reactions, electrolysis – some typical
examples of electrolysis viz; fused NaOH, brine solution, fused MgCl2, Faraday’s
laws of electrolysis, Galvanic and voltaic cells representation and notation of
electrochemical cells with and without salt bridge, Standard hydrogen electrode
and electrode potentials, electro chemical series, EMF of cell, Nernst equation
and its applications, calculation of EMF of electro chemical cells, Primary cell-dry
cell/Lechlanche cell, secondary cells – fuel cells – Hydrogen – Oxygen fuel cell.
UNIT – 7
Syllabus – Chemistry Section – C
GAT-UGTP-2018 Page 4 of 8
1. GROUP 13 ELEMENTS: General introduction, electronic configuration,
occurance, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical
reactivity, Anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron: –
Physical and chemical properties, uses, some important compounds: Borax
and Boric acid. Boron hydrides, aluminium – uses, reactions with acids and
alkalies, Alums.
2. GROUP 14 ELEMENTS: General introduction, electronic configuration,
occurrence, Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical
reactivity, Anomalous behavior of the first element of the group Carbon –
catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties and uses.
Similarities between carbon and silicon, uses of oxides of carbon, Important
compounds of silicon – silicon dioxide and a few uses of silicon tetrachloride,
silicones, silicates and zeolites (Elementary ideas) Fuel gases : Manufacture
and uses of producer gas and water gas.
3. GROUP 18 ELEMTNS (ZERO GROUP ELEMENTS): General introduction,
electronic configuration, occurrence, Isolation trends in physical and chemical
properties, uses, compounds of xenon oxides and xenon Fluorides (structures
UNIT – 8
1. GROUP 15 ELEMENTS (V A GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence- physical
states of Nitrogen and Phosphorous; allotropy, catenation. electronic
configuration, oxidation states, General characteristics of hydrides, structure of
hydrides, general characteristics of oxides, general characteristics of halides,
Oxyacids of nitrogen, Oxyacids of phosphorous, preparation and uses of nitric
acid and ammonia, superphosphate of lime.
2. GROUP 16 ELEMENTS (VI GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic
configuration, oxidation states,physical states of Oxygen and Sulphur and their
structure, allotropy, general characteristics of hydrides, oxides and halides,
structural aspects of oxyacids of chalcogens, Ozone, uses of ozone, Sodium
thiosulphate, Sulphuric acid – industrial process of manufacture.
3. GROUP 17 ELEMENTS (VII A GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic
configuration and oxidation states, Physical states of halogens, I.P values,
electronegativity and electron affinity, bond energies, chemical reactivity,
oxidizing power of fluorine, chlorine, structural aspects of oxy acids of chlorine,
preparation, properties and uses of fluorine, chlorine and bleaching powder,
Interhalogen compounds -structures only.
UNIT – 9
Syllabus – Chemistry Section – C
GAT-UGTP-2018 Page 5 of 8
1. TRANSITION ELEMENTS: General introduction, electronic configuration,
Occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties
of first row transition elements- metallic character, ionization energy, Variable
oxidation states, atomic and ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic
property, interstitial compounds, Alloy formation. Preparation and properties of
KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, Ag2O, AgNO3, Ag2S2O3.
2. LANTHANIDES : Electronic configuration, variable oxidation states, chemical
reactivity and lanthanide contraction.
3. COORDINATION COMPOUNDS: Introduction, ligands, coordination number,
Werner’s theory of coordination compounds, Shapes of coordination compounds,
valence bond theory, IUPAC nomenclature of mono nuclear coordination
compounds, Bonding, isomerism, EAN rule, Importance of coordination
compounds in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals, Biological systems
(chromo proteins, haemoglobin, chlorophyll structures only).
UNIT – 10
1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF METALURGY: Principles and methods of extractionconcentration,
reduction by chemical and electrolytic methods and refining,
Occurrence and principles of extraction of copper, zinc, iron and silver. Process
of molten electrolysis to extract Al, Mg and Na. Extraction of gold and lead.
Cu2+, Pb2+,Bi3+, Fe
3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); nitrate,
halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate and sulphide.
UNIT – 11
1. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Some basic principles and techniques: General
introduction, methods of purification, quantitative and qualitative analysis.
Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic
displacements in a covalent bond, Inductive effect, electrometric effect,
resonance and hyper conjugation, Fission of a covalent bond – homolytic and
heterolytic fissions, Types of reagents : Electrophiles, nucleophiles and free
radicals – examples and reactive intermediates, Common types of organic
reactions – substitution, addition. Elimination and rearrangement reactions with
examples. Shapes of simple organic molecules. Structural and geometrical
isomerism; optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric
centres (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded). Keto-enol tautomerism.
2. HYDROCARBONS : Classification of hydrocarbons, Alkanes – Nomenclature,
isomerism conformations (Ethane and butane), Methods of preparation of
Ethane, physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism
of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis of ethane, Cycloalkanes: Preparation
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GAT-UGTP-2018 Page 6 of 8
and properties of cyclohexane, Alkenes: Nomenclature, structure of double bond
(ethene), physical properties, methods of preparation of ethylene, physical
properties, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen
halides (Markonikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation,
mechanism of electrophilic addition. Reaction with Baeyer’s reagent. AkynesPreparations
and properties of alkynes. Acidity of alkynes.
3. AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: Introduction – IUPAC nomenclature, Benzene ,
resonance, aromaticity chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic
substitution – nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel crafts alkylation
and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono substituted
Benzene carcinogenicity and toxicity. Effect of O,M,P directing groups in
monosubstituted benzene.
UNIT – 12
1. HALOALKANES: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, Ethyl chloride and
chloroform, preparation, physical and chemical properties, Mechanism of
substitution reactions SN1&SN2 reactions. Reactions of Grignard reagent.
2. HALOARENES: Nature of C – X bond, Chlorobenzene substitution reactions
(directive influence of halogen for mono substituted compounds only).
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes.
ALCOHOLS: Nomenclature, methods of preparation of ethyl alcohol, physical
and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), Identification of primary,
secondary, tertiary alcohols, Mechanism of dehydration. Uses of some important
compounds – methanol and ethanol
PHENOLS: Nomenclature, methods of preparation of phenol, Physical and
chemical properties, Acidic nature of phenol, Electrophilic substitution reactions,
Uses of phenols. Comparison of acidic nature of substituted phenols.
ETHERS: Nomenclature, Methods of preparation of diethyl ether, physical and
chemical properties, uses.
Syllabus – Chemistry Section – C
GAT-UGTP-2018 Page 7 of 8
UNIT – 13
ALDEHYDES AND KETONES : Nomenclature, Nature of carbonyl group,
Methods of preparation of acetaldehyde and acetone, physical and chemical
properties, Mechanism of nucleophilic addition, Reactivity of alpha- hydrogen in
aldehydes, uses. Distinction of Aldehydes and ketones. Reactions of
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS: Nomenclature, acidic nature, Methods of preparation of
acetic acid, Physical and chemical properties, Uses. Comparison of acidic strength of
aliphatic and aromatic acids. Preparations and properties of Benzoic acid.
Preparation and properties of Nitro compounds.
AMINES: Nomenclature, Classification, Structure, methods of preparation of
aniline, physical and chemical properties, Uses, Identification of primary,
secondary and tertiary amines and aromatic amine (Aniline). Comparison of
basic strength of aliphatic amines and substituted anilines.
DIAZONIUM SALTS: Preparation, Chemical reactions and importance in
synthetic organic chemistry, Uses of azodyes. Azo Coupling reactions of
diazonium salts of aromatic amines.
3. PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Detection of elements (N, S, Halogens);
detection and identification of the following functional groups: alcoholic and
phenolic, aldehyde and ketone, carboxyl, amino and nitro. Chemical methods
of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.
Syllabus – Chemistry Section – C
GAT-UGTP-2018 Page 8 of 8
UNIT – 14
1. POLYMERS: Classification of polymers, addition, condensation, copolymerization,
Natural rubber, vulcanization of rubber, synthetic rubber, molecular weights of
polymers – number average and weight average molecular weights (definitions
only). Bio – polymers, bio-degradable polymers, Some commercially important
polymers like polythene, nylon, polyesters and Bakelite.
CARBOHYDRATES: Classification (aldoses and ketoses), Monosaccharides
(glucose and fructose), Oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose),
Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) and Importance.
AMINOACIDS AND PROTEINS: Elementary idea of amino acids, peptide,
Polypeptides, proteins Primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure
and quaternary structures (qualitative ideas only). Denaturation of proteins,
VITAMINS: Classification, Functions in bio systems.
NUCLEIC ACIDS: Types of nucleic acids, primary building blocks of nucleic acids,
Chemical composition of DNA & RNA, Structure of D.N.A, genetic code.
UNIT – 15
1. CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE : Uses of chemicals in medicine: Analgesics –
narcotics (morphine, codeine), Non- narcotics (Asprin, Ibuprofen); Antipyretic
(analgin, Phenacetin, paracetamol), Tranquilizers (barbituric acid, luminal,
secpnal, valium, serotonin), Antiseptics(chioroxylenol, bithional), disinfectants
(formalin, formaldehyde), Anti-microbials (lysozyme, lactic acid, hydrochloric
acid in stomach). Antifertilitydrugs, Antibiotics (pencillin, chloramphenicol,
sulphadiazine), Antacids (omeprazole, lansoprazole), antihistamines (histidine),
Chemicals in food preservatives (sodium benzoate, potassium metabisulphite
etc.), Artificial sweetening agents (aspartame, alitane, sucralose).
2. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: Definition of terms: Air, water and soil pollution.
Oxides of carbon – carbon monoxide, Oxides of Sulphur and Nitrogen, Chloro
Fluoro Carbons, Chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric
pollutants, acidrains, Ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer.
Green house effect and global warming, Pollution due to industrial wastes,
Green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution.

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