Information technology engineering semester 7 syllabus – The Mumbai university syllabus for Information technology engineering in semester seven in its four year bachelors degree course has core subjects like Cloud Computing, Image Processing, Software Architecture,Wireless technology and Intelligent systems.
Information technology engineering semester 7 syllabus
SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT
An overview of Introduction, the state of IT project management, 4
IT Project context of project management, need of project
Management management, project goals, project life cycle and IT
development, information technology project
methodology (ITPM), project feasibility, request for
proposal (RFP), the business case, project selection and
approval, project contracting, PMBOK.
2 Project Introduction, project management process, project 4
Integration integration management, the project charter, project
Management planning framework, the contents of a project plan, the
3 Project Scope Introduction, scope planning, project scope definition, 4
Management project scope verification, scope change control, the
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), the linear
4 Project Time Introduction, developing the project schedule, 10
Management Scheduling Charts, logic diagrams and network (AOA,
AON), critical path, calendar scheduling and time based
network, management schedule reserve, PDM network,
PERT, CPM, Resource loading, resource leveling,
allocating scarce resources to projects and several
projects, Goldratt’s critical chain.
5 Project Cost Cost estimating, Cost escalation, Cost estimating and 4
Management system development cycle, Cost estimating process,
Elements of budgets and estimates, Project cost
accounting and MIS, Budgeting using cost accounts,
Cost schedules and forecasts.
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6 Project Quality Introduction, Quality tools and philosophies, quality 3
Management systems, the IT project quality plan.
7 Project Human Introduction, organization and project planning, the 5
Resource project team, multidisciplinary teams, the project
Management environment, project leadership, ethics in projects,
multicultural projects, Role of project manager, IT
governance and the project office.
Introduction to change, the nature of change, the change
management plan, dealing with resistance and conflicts.
8 Project Introduction, monitoring and controlling the project, the 4
Communication project communications plan, project metric, project
Management control, designing the control system, the plan-monitorcontrol
cycle, data collection and reporting, reporting
performance and progress, information distribution.
9 Project Risk Basic concepts, Identification, Assessment, Response 4
Management planning, Management.
10 Project Introduction, project procurement management, 3
11 The Introduction, project implementation, administrative 3
Implementation closure, project evaluation, project audit.
Plan and Project
1. Jack T. Marchewka, Information Technology Project Management, 4th edition, Wiley India,
2. John M. Nicholas, Project Management for Business and Technology, 3rd edition, Pearson
1. E-Book – Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).
2. Claudia M. Baca, Patti M. Jansen, PMP: Project Management Professional Workbook,
3. S. J. Mantel, J. R. Meredith and etal., Project Management 1st edition, Wiley India, 2009.
4. Joel Henry, Software Project Management, A real-world guide to success, Pearson
5. Gido and Clements, Successful Project Management, 2nd edition, Thomson Learning
Introduction to – Introduction – Component of CC – Comparing CC 2
Cloud Computing with Virtualization, Grids, Utility Computing, clientserver
model, P-to-P Computing – Impact of CC on
Business – Key Drivers for Cloud Computing –
Cloud computing Service delivery model
– Cloud Types – Private, Public and Hybrid, when to
avoid public cloud, Cloud API
2. Virtualization – Introduction & benefit of Virtualization – 4
Implementation Levels of Virtualization- VMM
Deisgn Requirements and Providers – Virtualization
at OS level – Middleware support for Virtualization
– Virtualization structure/tools and mechanisms:
Hypervisor and Xen Architecture, Binary
Translation with full Virtualization, Para
Virtualization with Compiler Support –
– Virtualization fo CPU, Memory and I/O Devices,
Hardware support for Virtualization in intel x86
processor – CPU Virtualization – Memory
Virtualization and I/O Virtualization – Virtualization
in Multicore processors
3. Cloud computing XaaS, IaaS, PaaS- Leveraging PaaS for Productivity- 4
Services Languages for PaaS- DBaaS(Database as a services) – SaaS
(Software as a service) – Comparison of various cloud
computing providers/ Softwares.
4. Cloud Computing Key Business Drivers for CC- Cloud computing and out 4
and Business Value sourcing – Types of Scalability – Security issues in Cloud
Computing- time to Market Benefits- Distribution over
Internet – Three levels of Business value from Cloud
5. Open Source Cloud Eucalyptus and Open Stack Architecture Features – 6
Implementation and Components – Various mode of operations – Installation and
Administration configuration process of both open source – Cloud
Administration and Management Task – Creating User
Interface ( Web Interface ) of Private cloud.
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6. Cloud Deployment Factors for Successful Cloud Deployment – Network 4
Techniques Requirements – Potential Problem areas in a cloud Network
and their Mitigation – Cloud Network Topologies –
Automation and Self-service feature in a cloud –cloud
7. Security Security for Virtualization Platform – Host security for SaaS, 4
PaaS and IaaS – Data Security – Data Security Concerns –
Data Confidentiality and Encryption – Data Availability –
Data Integrity – Cloud Storage Gateways – Cloud Firewall
8. Architecture for Cloud Application requirements- Architecture for traditional 4
Cloud Application Vs Cloud Applications- Multi-ties Application ArchitectureSOA
for Cloud applications – Resource oriented SOA –
Method –oriented SOA and Event Driven SOA –
Parallelization within Cloud Applications – Leveraging Inmemory
Operations for Cloud Application
9 Cloud Programming Programming Support for Google Apps engine: GFS, Big 4
Tables, Googles NO SQL System, Chubby, Google
Distibuted Lock Service,
Programming Support for Amazon EC2: Amazon S3, EBS
and Simple DB etc.
10 Adoption and Use of Adoption of Public cloud by SMBs- Public Cloud Adoption 4
Cloud phase for SMBs- Vendor liability and Management
Adoption process of Public clouds by Enterprises – Managed
Migrating Application to the cloud – Impact of Shared
Resources and Multi-Tenancy on cloud Applications –
Phases during Migration an Application to An IaaS Cloud
11 Risks of Cloud Risk Assessment and Management – Rosk of Vendor Lock- 2
Computing and in – Risk of Loss of control over IT services- Risk of Poor
Related Costs Provisioning – Risk of Multi-tenant environment – Risk
failure of cloud provider – SLA risk –security, malware and
Internet Attacks – Risk with Application Licensing.
12 AAA AAA model – SSO for Clouds – Authentication management 2
Administration for and Authorization management in clouds – Accounting for
Clouds Resource utilization.
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13 Security as a service What can security as service offer- Benefits for Security as a 2
service – Issues with Security as a Service- Identity
Management as a Service
14 Mobile Cloud Introduction, Defination, Architecture, Benefits, challenges 2
Computing in mobile and at cloud shield
1. Cloud Computing Principles and Paradigms, Rajkumar Buyya Wiley
2. Distributed and Cloud Computing, Kai Hwang, Mk Publication
3. Cloud computing Black Book Dreamtech Publication
1. Using Goolgle Apps engine O’reilly Publication
2. Programming Amazon EC2, O’reilly Publication
3. Cloud security, Ronald L. Wiley Publication
4. Cloud computing Dr. Kumar Saurabh, wily Publication
5. Virtualization for Dummies, Wiley Publication
Introduction: Introduction to AI, AI Problems and AI techniques, 04
Solving problems by searching, Problem Formulation.
2 Intelligent Agents: Structure of Intelligent agents, Types of Agents, 03
Agent Environments PEAS representation for an Agent.
3 Uninformed Search Techniques: DFS, BFS, Uniform cost search, 04
Depth Limited Search, Iterative Deepening, Bidirectional search,
Comparing Different Techniques.
4 Informed Search Methods: Heuristic functions, Hill Climbing, 08
Simulated Annealing, Best First Search, A*, IDA*, SMA*, CryptoArithmetic
Problem, Backtracking for CSP, Performance Evaluation.
6 Adversarial Search: Game Playing, Min-Max Search, Alpha Beta 03
7 Knowledge and Reasoning: A Knowledge Based Agent, WUMPUS 08
WORLD Environment, Propositional Logic, First Order Predicate
Logic, Forward and Backward Chaining, Resolution. , Introduction to
8 Planning: Introduction to Planning, Planning with State Space Search, 04
Partial Ordered planning, Hierarchical Planning,
Conditional Planning, Planning with Operators.
9 Uncertain Knowledge and Reasoning: Uncertainly, Representing 06
Knowledge in an Uncertain Domain, Conditional Probability, Joint
Probability, Bays theorem, Belief Networks, Simple Inference in
10 Learning: Learning from Observation, General Model of Learning 05
Agents, Inductive Learning, Learning Decision Trees,
Rote Learning, Learning by Advice, Learning in Problem Solving,
Explanation based Learning
11 Expert Systems: Representing and using Domain Knowledge, Expert 03
System-shell, Explanation, Knowledge Acquisition
1. Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 2nd Edition,
2. Elaine Rich, Kevin Knight, Shivshankar B Nair, Artificial Intelligence, McGraw Hill, 3rd
3. Elaine Rich, Kevin Knight, Artificial Intelligence, Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition.
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1. George Lugar, .AI-Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving., 4/e, 2002,
2. Nils J. Nilsson, Principles of Artificial Intelligence, Narosa Publication.
3. Patrick H. Winston, Artificial Intelligence, 3rd edition, Pearson Education.
4. Deepak Khemani, A First Course in Artificial Intelligence, McGraw Hill Publication
Fundamentals of ? Fundamentals of Wireless Communication 08
wireless Advantages, Limitations and Applications
Communication ? Wireless Media
? Infrared Modulation Techniques
? DSSS And FHSS
? Multiple access technique: TDMA,CDMA,
FDMA, CSMA,OFDMA [ fundamentals]
? Frequency Spectrum
? Radio and Infrared Frequency Spectrum
2 Wireless ? The cellular concepts: Frequency Reuse, 10
technology Channel assignment strategies, Handoff strategies
Interference and System Capacity [Design problems]
? Evolution of cellular networks 1G, 2G,3G,4G
?GSM: System Architecture, Radio Subsystem,
Channel Types, GSM frame structure
? CDMA: Architecture, Frequency and channel
specifications, forward and Reverse CDMA
3 Wire less in local User requirements of WLL systems, WLL system 04
loop (WLL) architecture, MMDS, LMDS, WLL subscriber terminal,
WLL interface to the PSTN
4 Wire less local area Introduction, WLAN Equipment, WLAN topologies and 08
networks (WLAN) Technologies, IEEE 802.11 WLAN : Architecture,
Physical Layer, Data Link Layer , MAC Layer, Security
Latest developments of IEEE 802.11 standards
5 Wireless personal Introduction ,WPAN technologies and Protocols, 08
(WPAN) Bluetooth (802.15.1)[ Protocol stack and network connection
establishment, security aspects]
HR –WPAN ( UWB) ( IEEE 802.15.3 )
LR-WPAN ( IEEE 802.15.4 ) Zigbee [ Stack architecture,
components , Network Topologies , Applications]
Wireless Sensor networks [ Network model and protocol stack ,
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routing algorithms, Applications ]
6 Wireless IEEE 802.16 [ Protocol Architecture], 04
IEEE 802.16a [Wimax]
Wimax and LTE /3GPP comparison
7 Security issues in The need, attacks , security services, wired equivalent 03
Wireless Systems privacy protocol(WEP), Mobile IP, VPN [ PPTP, L2TP,
8 Economies of Economic Benefits, Economics of Wireless industry 03
Wireless Network Wireless data forecast, charging issues
1. Modern wireless communication systems: by Simon Haykin, Michael Moher, adapted by David
Koilpillai ; Pearson (Indian edition 2011)
2. Wireless Networks: by Nicopolitidia, M S Obaidat, GI Papadimitriou; Wiley India (student
3. Wireless communications: by T L Singal; Tata McGraw Hill Education private Ltd.( edition
1. Wireless and Mobile Networks: Dr. Sunilkumar S. Manvi & Mahabaleshwar S. Kakkasageri
2. Wireless Communications and Networking: by Vijay K. Garg
3. Wireless Communications: by Theodore S. Rappaport
Signal Processing Analog, discrete and digital signals, 1D, 2-D
Only as a signals with examples. Discrete time signals:
0 prerequisite for sequences, Discrete time systems LTI 04 0%
Image Processing. systems and their properties. Convolution
Hence not part of and Correlation- need, methods and examples
Introduction: Definition of digital image,
generation of digital image, steps in digital
Introduction to image processing, 2D sampling, spatial and 05 10%
digital image tonal resolutions, pixel connectivity,
processing elements of digital image processing systems
Image Point operations, histogram processing,
2 enhancement in the spatial filtering: smoothing, sharpening, 07 20%
spatial domain median, highboost
Introduction to image in frequency domain,
Concept of basis images, two dimensional
Discrete Fourier D.F.T. and its properties, two dimensional
3 Transform F.F.T. Filtering in the frequency domain: 06 15%
smoothening, sharpening and homomorphic
Image Detection of discontinuities, edge linking and
4 boundary detection, Hough transform, 06 10% segmentation thresholding, region oriented segmentation.
Image Boundary descriptors: shape number, Fourier
5 representation and descriptor, statistical moments; regional 06 10%
Image data redundancies: coding, inter-pixel,
psychovisual; Fundamentals of lossless
compression : Arithmetic coding, Huffman
6 coding, LZW coding, RLE, Bit plane coding, 06 15% compression predictive coding
Lossy compression : JPEG, Subband coding,
Vector quantization, Image compression
standard, Fidelity criteria
Morphological operation : Dilation erosion,
7 Image morphology Opening & Closing, Hit or Miss Transform, 04 10%
Basic Morphological Algorithms
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Case Study on the following applications:
Digital watermarking, Biometric
8 authentication (face, finger print, signature 04 10% image processing recognition), Vehicle number plate detection
and recognition, Content Based Image
Retrieval, Text Compression.
1. Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing, Pearson Education, Third Edition.
2. W. Pratt, Digital Image Processing, Wiley Publication, Fourth Edition, 2013.
1. J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal processing Principals,Algorithms and
Applications,PHI publications, Third edition,
2. Milan Sonka , Digital Image Processing and Computer Vision, Thomson publication,
3. A.K. Jain, Fundamentals of Image processing, Prentice Hall of India Publication, 1995
4. Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing using MATLAB, Pearson Education
5. S.Jayaraman, S Esakkirajan and T Veerakumar, Digital Image Processing ,McGraw Hill
Education (India) Private Limited, New Delhi, 2009.
6. S.Sridhar, Digital Image Processing ,Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2011.
Basic Concepts 03
1.1 Concepts of Software Architecture
2 2 Designing Architectures 05
2.1 The Design Process.
2.2 Architectural Conception.
2.3 Refined Experience in Action: Styles and Architectural Patterns.
2.4 Architectural Conception in Absence of Experience.
2.5 Putting it all Together: Design Processes Revisited
3 3 Connectors 06
3.1 Connectors in Action: A Motivating Example.
3.2 Connector Foundations.
3.3 Connector Roles.
3.4 Connector Types and Their Variation Dimensions.
3.5 Example Connectors.
3.6 Using the connector Framework
4 4 Modeling 04
4.1 Modeling Concepts.
4.2 Ambiguity, Accuracy, and Precision.
4.3 Complex Modeling: Mixed Content and Multiple Views.
4.4 Evaluating Modeling Techniques.
4.5 Specific Modeling Techniques: Generic Techniques, Domain and
Style specific ADLs, Extendable ADLs.
5 5 Visualization 04
5.1 Visualization Concepts.
5.2 Common issues in Visualization.
5.3 Visualization Techniques: Textual Visualization, UML, xADL.
6 6 Analysis 06
6.1 Analysis Goals.
6.2 Scope of Analysis.
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6.3 Architectural Concern being Analyzed.
6.4 Level of Formality of Architectural Models.
6.5 Type of Analysis.
6.6 Analysis Techniques.
7 7 Implementation and Deployment 04
6.2 Existing Frameworks.
6.3 Software Architecture and Deployment.
6.4 Software Architecture and Mobility.
8 8 Applied Architectures and Styles 08
8.1 Distributed and Networked Architectures.
8.2 Architectures for Network-Based Applications.
8.3 Decentralized Architectures.
8.4 Service-Oriented Architectures and Web Services.
9 9 Designing for Non-Functional Properties 04
9.3 Scalability and Heterogeneity.
10 10 Documentation 04
10.1 Uses of Architectural Documentation.
10.3 Choosing the Relevant Views
10.4 Documenting a View
10.5 Documentation across Views
1. Richard N. Taylor, Nenad Medvidovic, Eric M. Dashofy, “Software
Architecture: Foundations, Theory, and Practice”, Wiley Publications.
2. Len Bass, Paul Clements, Rick Kazman, “Software Architecture in Practice”, Pearson
1. M. Shaw, “Software Architecture Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline”, Prentice
E COMMERCE and E BUSINESS
E – commerce :- Definition of e com , different types of e com , 2
Introduction to E Examples of e com E commerce trade cycle ,
commerce Advantages and disadvantages of ecom , Traditional
commerce Vs E commerce
2 Overview of Client side programming ( Dream weaver , Front page ) 8
Hardware and , Server side programming (PHP) , Database
software connectivity , session tracking , middleware
technologies for E technologies from e com perspective and security
com aspects wrt to e commerce, integration of web services
3 Payment System Traditional payment model , Characteristics of payment 8
for e commerce system, SET Protocol for credit card payment, E-cash,
E-check, smart cards
4 E – Marketing Value chain , Working of e – market , Transactions at e 8
Strategies – market , Strategies for marketing for selling on the
web – Advertising supported , advertising subscription
mixed model , fee for transaction model Sales and
Promotions Strategies for Purchasing and support
5 E business :- Definition of e business , Characteristics , elements of e 4
Introduction to e business , e business roles , Impact of e business ,
business challenges of e business , difference between e business
, e commerce
6 Developing e E- business structure , Evolution of e –business and its 3
business models stages , E – business models , Characteristics of Internet
based software and e business solutions
7 E-business Strategic planning process, SCM , CRM , ERP , 7
8 Design and a) Building an e commerce website. :- 8
development of SDLC , system design , Issues involved in designing a
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website , Prerequisites required for designing in – house
website, steps involved in web site development , ebusiness
and web site development solutions , security
issues involved and analysing website traffic — Case
b) Analysis and design – (Workflow management,
process modelling , data modelling ) , UI design ,
use case design , information architecture , security
1. E-Commerce Fundamentals and application (Henry Chan) Wiley publication
2. Electronics Commerce (Gary Schneider) Thomson Course technology
3. E – Business , Parag Kulkarni , Sunita Jahirabadkar, Pradip Chande , Oxford Higher Education
, Oxford University Press
4. E –business and E – commerce Management , Dave Chaffey , Pearson , 3rd edition
5. E commerce by Laudon
1. E- Commerce Strategies, Technology and applications (David Whitley) Tata
2. Introduction to E-commerce Elias Awad
Introduction to What is multimedia, Hypermedia, Multimedia tools, 2
Multimedia Multimedia Authoring & its Tools, VERML, File
2 Color in Images & Colour Models for Images & Videos, Video Signals, 4
Video Digital Video, MIDI, Quantization, Transmission of
3 Compression Lossless Compression , Introduction, Basics, RLC 4
Algorithms ,VLC, lossless Image Compression, Lossy
Compression, introduction, Distortion, Rate
Distortion Theory, Quantization
4 Image JPEG standards, JPEG 2000 standards, JPEG –LS 4
Compression standards, Bi-Level Image Compression Standards
5 Video Introduction, Motion Compensation ,Motion 5
Compression vectors, H.261& H.263,MPEG-1&MEPEGTechniques
6 Audio ADPCM, Vocoders, Psychoacoustics, MPEG audio. 3
7 Multimedia Quality of Multimedia Data transmission, Multimedia 6
Network over IP, Multimedia over ATM, Media on Demand,
Applications Multimedia over Wireless Network
8 Multimedia Data Design and Architecture of Multimedia Data base, 7
bases Types, Organization, Medias Abstraction, Query
9 Frame Work for Introduction, Standard Activates, Standard to built a 6
Multimedia news Global Information Infrastructure, Standardization
Standards process on Multimedia Communication, ITU-I
Mediacom 2004 Framework, ISO/MPEG -21
Framework, IETF Multimedia Internet Standards.
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10 Application layer: Introduction, ITU applications, MPEG Application , 7
Digital Broadcasting Applications, Universal
1) Fundamentals of Multimedia by Ze-Nian Li& Mark.S.Drew
2) Introduction to Multimedia Communication, Application, Middleware, Networking by
K.R.Roa, Zoran S,Bojkovic & Dragorad A. Milovanovic.
Multimedia systems by Thakker
Cost Savings, Usability Now, Usability Slogans,
Discount Usability Engineering, Recipe For Action,
Usability and Other Considerations, Definition of
Usability, Example: Measuring the Usability of Icons,
Usability Trade-Offs, Categories of Users and
Individual User Differences
2 2 Generations of User Interfaces 02
Batch Systems, Line-Oriented Interfaces, Full-Screen
Interfaces, Graphical User Interfaces, Next-Generation
Interfaces, Long-Term Trends in Usability
3 3 The Usability Engineering Lifecycle 08
Know the User, Competitive Analysis, Goal Setting,
Parallel Design, Participatory Design, Coordinating the
Total Interface, Guidelines and Heuristic Evaluation,
Prototyping, Interface Evaluation, Iterative Design,
Follow-Up Studies of Installed Systems, Meta-Methods,
Prioritizing, Usability Activities.
4 4 Usability Heuristics 08
Simple and Natural Dialogue, Speak the Users’
Language, Minimize User Memory Load, Consistency,
Feedback, Clearly Marked Exits, Shortcuts, Good Error
Messages, Prevent Errors, Help and Documentation,
5 5 Usability Testing 08
Test Goals and Test Plans, Getting Test Users,
Choosing Experimenters, Ethical Aspects of Tests with
Human, Subjects, Test Tasks, Stages of a Test,
Performance Measurement, Thinking Aloud, Usability
6 6 Usability Assessment Methods beyond Testing 04
Observation, Questionnaires and Interviews, Focus
Groups, Logging, Actual Use, User Feedback, Choosing
7 7 Interface Standards 08
National, International and Vendor Standards,
Producing Usable In-House Standards.
International User Interfaces
International Graphical Interfaces, International
Usability Engineering, Guidelines for
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Internationalization, Resource Separation, Multilocale
8 8 Future Developments 04
Theoretical Solutions, Technological Solutions, CAUSE
Tools: Computer-Aided Usability Engineering,
Usability Engineering by Jacob Nielson, Morgan Kaufmann, Academic Press.
* eBook available
Developing User Interfaces – Ensuring Usability through Product & Process by Deborah Hix,
Rex Hartson, Wiley
Introduction to Definition, Advantage, Application and Scope.
Properties of Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiquitous
1 Ubiquitous 4
System Environment Interaction. Architectural Design Computing for UbiCom Systems: Smart DEI Model.
Introduction to Smart Devices: Users, Mobiles, Cards
Smart Devices and and Device Networks. Service Architecture Models.
2 Service Provision Life-Cycle. Virtual Machines and 8
Services Operating Systems Mobile Computers and
Tagging the Physical World. Sensors and Sensor
Sensing and Networks. Micro Actuation and Sensing: Micro3
Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Embedded 8
Controlling Systems and Real-Time Systems. Control Systems for
Physical World Tasks. Robots
Introduction to Context-Aware Computing, ContextContext-Aware
Aware Systems, Context-Aware Applications,
4 Designing and Implementing Context-Aware 8
Systems Applications, Issues for building Context-Aware
User Interfaces and Interaction for Four Widely Used
Human–Computer Devices. Hidden UI Via Basic Smart Devices. Hidden
5 UI Via Wearable and Implanted Devices. Human- 10 Interaction Centered Design (HCD). User Models: Acquisition and
Representation. iHCI Desi
Data Networks. Audio Networks. Wireless Data
Networks. Universal and Transparent Audio, Video and
Ubiquitous Alphanumeric Data. Ubiquitous Networks. Network
10 Communication Design Issues. Human Intelligence Versus Machine
Intelligence. Challenges in Ubiquitous System, Social
Issues: Promise Versus Peril.
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 Stefan Poslad. Ubiquitous Computing: Smart Devices, Environments and Interactions,
 John Krumm. Ubiquitous Computing Fundamentals. CRC Press.
 Yin-Leng Theng and Henry B. L. Duh. Ubiquitous Computing: Design, Implementation,
and Usability. IGI Global.
 Adam Greenfield. Everyware the Drawing age of Ubiquitous Computing, Published in
Association with AIGA.
 Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing”, Georgia Tech, 2003.