# Instrumentation engineering semester 4 syllabus

Instrumentation engineering semester 4 syllabus – The Mumbai university syllabus for fourth semester Instrumentation engineering has applied Mathematics 4 that is one of the easiest math to clear.The core Instrumentation subjects are Transducers 2, Analytical Instrumentation and signal conditioning circuit design.

## Instrumentation engineering semester 4 syllabus

### Applied Mathematics 4

Linear Algebra: Vector Spaces
Vectors in n-dimensional vector space: properties, dot product,
cross product, norm and distance properties in n-dimensional vector
space.
Vector spaces over real field, properties of vector spaces over real
field, subspaces.
The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, Orthogonal Subspaces, GramSchmidt
process.
06 CO1
2 Linear Algebra: Vector Matrix Theory
Characteristic equation, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, properties
of Eigen values and Eigen vectors
Cayley-Hamilton theorem, examples based on verification of
Cayley- Hamilton theorem.
Similarity of matrices, Diagonalisation of matrices.
Functions of square matrix, derogatory and non-derogatory
matrices.
10 CO2
3 Random Variables
Discrete & continuous random variables, expectation, Variance,
Probability mass function and Density Function, Probability
distribution for random variables
Moments, Moment Generating Function.
Functions of one random variable and their distribution and density
functions
10 CO3
4 Probability distribution
Probability distribution: Binomial distribution, Poisson & normal
distribution (For detailed study)
6 CO4
5 Complex integration
Complex Integration: Line Integral, Cauchy’s Integral theorem for
simply connected regions, Cauchy’s Integral formula.
Taylor’s and Laurent’s Series
Zeros, singularities, poles of f(z), residues, Cauchy’s Residue
theorem.
Applications of Residue theorem to evaluate real Integrals of
different types.
12 CO5
6 Correlation & Regression
Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation, covariance, Spearman’s
Rank correlation.
Lines of Regression.

## TRANSDUCERS 2

Strain Measurement
Introduction, types of strain gauge, gauge factor calculation,
materials for strain gauge, resistance strain gauge bridges,
temperature compensation and applications of strain gauges
04 CO1
2 Pressure Measurement
Pressure scales, units and relations, classification
Primary pressure sensors – elastic elements like bourdon tube,
diaphragm, bellows, properties and selection of elastic
materials, Calibration using dead weight tester.
Electrical/Secondary Pressure Transducers: Capacitive,
piezo-electric and its material, variable reluctance, LVDT,
strain gauge.
High Pressure Measurement: Bulk modulus cell, Bridgeman
type, capsule.
12 CO2
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Differential pressure measurement: Force balance, motion
balance, DP Cell, semiconductor strain gauges.
Pressure measurement using manometer: U-tube types, well
type, inclined type, micro manometer
3 Vacuum Measurement
Units and relations, McLeod gauge, Pirani gauge, thermocouple
gauge, hot and cold cathode ionization gauge, Knudsen gauge
04 CO3
4 Flow Measurement
Introduction to fluid flow: properties of fluid, types of fluid,
dimensionless numbers, types of fluid flow, continuity equation,
Bernoulli’s equation, hydrostatic law, Pascal’s law, flow
through pipes – major and minor losses, flow measurement
through open channel-weirs and notches. Materials used for
flow sensors, performance of materials, corrosion resistors,
erosion, effect of vapour pressure
Head Type: orifice, venturi, nozzle, pitot tube, annubar,
characteristics of head type flow meters.
Variable Area Type: Rotameter
Velocity and Inertia based flowmeters: Turbine,
electromagnetic, ultrasonic, positive displacement,
anemometers, mass flow meters, solid flow measurements
16 CO4
5 Electro-chemical Sensors
Terminology, equations, units. pH measurement-electrodes,
measuring circuits, maintenance, temperature compensation,
calibration. Conductivity measurement-probes and measuring
circuits
04 CO5
6 Miscellaneous Measurement
Force Measurement: strain gauge, LVDT, piezoelectric.
Torque: Torsion bar, strain gauge.
Power: Dynamometer, instantaneous power measurement,
alternator power measurement.
Density Measurement – Displacement and float type
densitometers
Viscosity Measurement – Capillary tube viscometer, Efflux
type viscometer, Variable area viscometer
Introduction to Advances in sensors technology: Smart sensors,
MEMS, Nano sensors, Semiconductor sensors, Optical fiber
sensors.

## FFEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM

Introduction
Definition of control system and related terms, open loop and closed
loop system, examples. Development of automatic control systems,
classification of control system, examples
4 CO1
2 Mathematical Models of
Physical Systems
Definition of physical systems, principle of superposition and
homogeneity, linear/non-linear, time variant/time invariant
systems. Types of dynamic model, linear elements of electrical
and mechanical systems, differential equations of p h y s i c a l
systems-mechanical systems, electrical systems – RLC series,
parallel circuits, Analogous systems.
8 CO2
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3 Transfer Function and Feedback Characteristics
Definition of transfer function, sinusoidal transfer function, transfer
functions of physical systems, block diagram algebra, reduction
rules, signal flow graphs-definition, construction, properties, and
Mason’s gain formula, sensitivity of closed loop and open loop
systems, effect of feedback, effect of disturbances signals,
regenerative feedback with examples
10 CO3
4 Time Response Analysis
Standard test signals, pulse and impulse function, step function,
ramp function, parabolic function, sinusoidal function, dynamic
response, time response of first order system, time response of
second order system, specifications, steady –state error, system
types and error constants, design specifications of second order
system-desired closed loop pole location and the dominant closed
loop pole concept. Time response analysis of electrical RLC circuits
– first and second order differential equations, steady-state, and
transient response by using Laplace transform.
10 CO4
5 Stability Analysis and Root Locus Method
Concept of stability, definitions, bounded input-bounded output
stability, relative stability, necessary and sufficient conditions for
stability, Routh’s stability criterion, relative stability analysis, root
locus technique, applications, concept, construction of root loci, root
loci of different systems, electrical RLC circuits, etc.
08 CO5
6 Frequency Response and Stability Analysis
Correlation between time and frequency response, polar plots, Bode
plots, Nyquist stability criterion, frequency response
specifications, stability analysis using-bode plots, polar plots,
definition and significance of gain margin and phase margin,
sensitivity analysis in frequency domain, Frequency response and
analysis of electrical RLC circuits.

## ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTATION

Introduction: Introduction to analytical Instrumentation.
Compare classical analytical techniques with instrumental
techniques.
Fundamentals of Spectroscopy: Nature of Electromagnetic
Radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Beer Lambert’s Law
statement and derivation. Deviations from Beer’s law.
Numerical on EMR and laws of photometry.
Interaction of radiation with matter. Instrumentation of
spectroscopic analytical system – Radiation sources,
Wavelength selectors, Detectors, signal processors and readout
modules.
06 CO1
2 Molecular Spectroscopy: Molecular Energy levels, correlation
of energy levels with transitions.
Electronic transitions and Vibrational transitions –
Introduction to UV-VIS molecular spectroscopy – basics of
single beam, double beam spectrophotometer and filter
photometer, its instrumentation and applications.
Basic principle of Fluorescence, Phosphorescence and Raman
Spectroscopy, components and instrumentation of Fluorimeters,
Phosphorimeters and Raman spectrometers.
Nuclear/Rotational transitions – Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
(NMR) spectroscopy, basic principle and numerical problems
based on NMR principle, instrumentation and constructional
details of NMR Spectrometer.
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy – Basic principle
and construction of ESR spectrometer.
10 CO2
3 Atomic Spectroscopy: Atomic Energy levels, Atomic
absorption spectrometers- components, working and absorption
spectra.
Atomic Emission spectrometers – components, working and
emission spectra, comparison between AAS and AES.
03 CO3
4 Separation Science:
Chromatography: Fundamentals of chromatographic
Separations, Classification, Gas chromatographic system with
components, factors affecting separation, applications. Analysis
of Gas Chromatogram.
HPLC – Its principle and instrumentation.
Mass Spectrometers: Basic principle, components and types of
mass spectrometers, sample handling techniques for liquids and
solids, resolution and numerical problems based on resolution.
Interfacing Gas Chromatography and Mass spectrometry
(GCMS).
09 CO4
period and numerical problems based on half-life period.
Radiation detectors – Ionization chamber, Proportional counter,
Geiger Muller counter, Scintillation detector, Semiconductor
detectors, Pulse height analyzers.
05 CO5
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6 Industrial Gas Analyzers:
Oxygen, Carbon dioxide(CO2), Carbon monoxide(CO) and
NO2 analyzers, Gas density analyzer.

### Signal conditioning circuit design

Principles of Analog Signal Conditioning:
Standard analog signals, Signal Level and bias changes,
Linearization, signal conversion, filtering and impedance
Passive circuits – Divider Circuits, Bridge circuits (Current,
Voltage, Balanced and Unbalanced), RC filters
06 CO1
2 Analog signal conditioners and their design 12 CO2
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Practical applications of Op amp based circuits with design:
Differentiators, Integrator, Instrumentation amplifier using 3 op
amps
Half wave, full wave milivolt rectification, absolute value circuit,
Log and antilog amplifier with temperature compensation, active
filters, threshold detector, zero crossing detector, window
detector, Phase locked loops (PLL), Voltage to Current converter
and Current to Voltage Converter, 555 Timer: modes of operation
with applications.
Guidelines for analog signal conditioning design and design
based problems
3 Components of Digital Signal Conditioning:
Block diagram of Digital signal conditioning, Characteristics of
digital data: digitized value, sampled data system and
linearization, sample and hold circuit, peak detector, ADC
(Successive Approximation, Flash, Ramp, dual slope) and DAC
(R/2R, Weighted resistors) their types and specifications, V to F
and F to V converters.
10 CO3
4 Thermal and Pressure Transducers Signal Conditioning
Design:
Thermal sensor signal conditioning, design considerations and
application for RTD, Thermistor, thermocouple and solid state
temperature sensor.
Pressure Transducer signal conditioning Design: design
considerations and applications for various pressure sensors.
8 CO4
5 Optical and Other Transducer Signal Conditioning Design:
Optical Sensor signal conditioning – photo-diode with photoconducting
and photovoltaic modes, photo-transistor and
photomultiplier tube.
Optical encoder signal conditioning for linear displacement,
velocity and angular displacement applications.
Other sensor signal conditioning: Potentiometer, LVDT, strain
gauges, piezoelectric and capacitive transducers
6 CO5
6 Power Supply Design:
Power supply design using 78xx series, 79xx series and
adjustable voltage IC regulators like 723 and LM317.
Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS): Block diagram with