# Instrumentation engineering Semester 5 syllabus

Instrumentation engineering Semester 5 syllabus – The syllabus for Instrumentation engineering from Mumbai University Bachelors degree course has Mathematics 5 as a common subject of all branches as well as core subjects of Signals and systems, Control System design,Signal conditioning circuit design and control system components.

## SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

Introduction:
Definition of signal, Singular Functions, Basic Operations on signal such
as: Addition, Multiplication, Time Scaling, Time Shifting, Folding, and
Amplitude Scaling.
Classification: C.T. D.T, Periodic, aperiodic, / non-periodic, Even/Odd,
Energy/ Power, causal and anticausal signals.
Classification of System: Static and dynamic, time invariant and time
variant, Linear and Non linear, Causal and Non causal stable and unstable
invertible and non invertible.
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2 Linear Time Invariant System:
Linear differential equations, Impulse response Representation of signals
by a continuum of impulses.
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Convolution for continues time and discrete time (Linear and Circular)
Properties of LTI System.
3 Fourier Series
Orthogonal functions, definitions, Approximation, Co-efficient calculation
on the basis of min. Mean square error.
Representation of Fourier series in terms of trigonometric,
exponential, complex. Gibbs phenomenon.
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4 Fourier Transform
Continuous and Discrete time Fourier transform Properties. Linearity, time
shifting, time reversal, frequency shifting, Scaling, Convolution in time
domain, diff. in time domain. Differentiation in freq. domain parsevals
relation. Relationship between Z, Laplace and Fourier transform.
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5 Laplace Transform:
Definition ROC concept, Properties, Inverse LT Transient and steady state
response of LTI system. Stability & Causality of system.
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6 Z-Transform:
Definition, Convergence, properties and inversion (PFE long division
Residue method) of Z-Transform. Concept of single and double sided ZTransform.
Analysis of discrete time system using Z-Transform. Stability
and Causality.

MICRO CONTROLLER 1

Introduction
Microprocessor Definition ,Microcontroller Definition Operation of ALU,
Evolution of Microprocessors ,Block Diagram of microprocessor based
system and development cycle ,RISC and CISC processors
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2 MCS-51 microcontroller
Architecture of MCS 51 family of microcontroller, and its Variants and
comparison. Comparison of microprocessor &microcontroller. CPU
timing and machine eye le. Memory organization, SFRS. Integrated
peripherals such as Timers/Counters, Serial port, parallel I/O pins.
Interrupt Structure. Memory interfacing. Power saving & power down
mode.
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8052 enhancements
Indirect Memory access,Timer2 ,PCA
Architecture of MCS151
Architecture of MCS251
4 Programming & Tools
Simulator, in-circuit debugger, in-circuit emulator, programmers,
integrated development environment (IDE),cross compilers. Merits &
demerits of above tools.
Assembly language programming process. Programming tools. Instruction
set, addressing modes. Assembly language Programming practice using
assembly & C compiler
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5 Serial communication protocols
Operation of serial port. Programming for implementation of
asynchronous serial communication.
Buses like
I2C
RTC –DS1307
EEPROM Memory -24C256
SPI – MCP3201
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6 Interfacing & Case Studies
Interfacing to LCD, 7 segment display, ADC, DAC, relay, opt isolator.
Data acquisition systems, Digital weighing machine, Washing machines,
PID temperature controller ,Speed Control of DC motors and similar
system design

## CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

Review: Time and Frequency domain specifications, error constants, effect of
addition of poles and zeros on the system response, stability analysis using
bode plot and root-locus techniques.
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2. State-Space Analysis of Control system:
Concept of state-space and state model for Linear systems-SISO and MIMO
systems, Linearization, State model for Linear continuous time system, Statespace
representation using phase variables, phase variable formulation for
transfer function with poles and zeros, State-space representation using
Canonical variables, derivation of transfer function from state model.
Diagonalizaion, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Solution of State equations –
properties of state transition matrix, computation of state transition matrix
using Laplace Transformation, Cayley – Hamilton theorem.
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3. Controller Design using State-Space:
Concept of controllability and observability, definitions, phase variable
form, properties, effect of pole-zero cancellation in transfer function ,
State Feedback and Pole placement – Stabilizability, choosing pole
locations, limitations of state feedback
Tracking Problems: Integral control
Controller design – for phase variable form, by matching coefficients, by
transformation.
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4. Introduction to Compensator:
Analysis of the basic approaches to compensation, cascade compensation,
feedback compensation, Derivative and integral error compensation,
Limitations of actuator saturation on controller design.
Compensator Design using Root-locus:
Improving steady-state error and transient response by feedback
compensation, cascade compensation, integral, derivative compensation, Lag,
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5. Compensator Design using Frequency response:
Steady-state error characteristics of Type 0,1, and 2 systems, Time delay,
compensation.
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6. PID Compensator Design:
PID controller tuning: Cohen-coon method, Ziegler-Nichols method,
Performance analysis of designed controllers based on optimal performance
indices like ISE,ITAE,IAE and MSE. Designing PID controller using RootLocus
and Bode plot technique

## SIGNAL CONDITIONING CIRCUIT DESIGN

Components of Analog Signal Conditioning: Standard analog signals,
Signal Level and bias changes, Linearization, conversion, filtering and
Passive signal conditioners – Voltage divider, Wheatstone bridge circuits
(Current, Voltage, Balanced and Unbalanced), RC filters.
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2 Analog signal conditioners and their design: Practical applications of Opamp
based circuits with design – Differentiators and Integrator, 3 op-amp
Instrumentation amplifier with applications, Precision rectifiers – Half wave,
full wave, absolute value circuit, Log and anti-log amplifier with temperature
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compensation and applications, Active filters, sample and hold circuit , peak
detector, threshold detector, zero crossing detector, window detector and
Phase locked loops.
Guidelines for analog signal conditioning design and design based problems.
3 Components of Digital Signal Conditioning : Converters – ADCs and their
different types, DACs and their different types, V to F and F to V converters.
555 Timer – modes of operation with applications.
Characteristics of digital data – digitized value, sampled data system and
linearization.
Data acquisition system design, Encoders and Data logger circuit.
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4
Thermal and Pressure Transducer Signal conditioning Design:
Thermal sensor signal conditioning – design considerations and applications
for RTD, Thermistor, thermocouple and solid state temperature sensors.
Pressure sensor signal conditioning – design considerations and applications
for various pressure sensors.
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5 Optical and Other Transducer Signal Conditioning Design:
Optical sensor signal conditioning – photo-diode with photo-conducting and
photovoltaic modes, photo-transistor and photomultiplier tube.
Optical encoder signal conditioning for linear displacement, velocity and
angular displacement applications.
Other sensor signal conditioning – Potentiometer, LVDT, strain gauges,
piezoelectric transducer and capacitive transducers.
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Power Supply Design: Power supply design using 78xx series, 79xx series
and adjustable voltage IC regulators like 723 and 317.
Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS) – Block diagram with advantages
and disadvantages over conventional power supply.

## CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Pneumatics
Pneumatic System Components: ISO symbols
Instrument Air and Plant Air ,Air supply system and its components, Air
compressors, Pressure regulation devices, air dryers , Directional control
valves and special types of pneumatic valve such as Pilot-operated valves,
Non-return valves, Flow control valves, Sequence valves, and Time delay
valve, Linear actuators- Single-acting, Double-acting, and special type of
double-acting cylinder, Rotary actuators- Air motors, Process Control
Pneumatics: Flapper Nozzle system, Volume boosters, Air relays, Pneumatic
transmitters and controllers, Pneumatic logic gates , Pneumatic CircuitsStandard
Symbols used for developing pneumatic circuits, Sequence
diagram, dynamic modeling of pneumatic circuits.
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2 Hydraulics
Hydraulic System Components:
valves, Hydraulic actuators (cylinder and motor) , Speed control circuits for
hydraulic actuators , Selection and comparison of pneumatic, hydraulic and
electric systems.
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3 Transmitters
Need of transmitter, Need for Standardization of signals, concept of live zero
and dead zero, 2-wire; 3-wire and 4-wire current transmitters, Electronic
versus pneumatic transmitters, Electronic type transmitters -temperature;
pressure; differential pressure; level; flow transmitter, SMART (Intelligent)
Block schematic and Comparison with conventional transmitter, Buoyancy
transmitter and their applications, Converters- Pneumatic to Electrical and
Electrical to Pneumatic converters.
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4 Process Control Valves
Control valve terminology: Rangeabilty, Turndown; Valve size; control
valve capacity and valve gain, Air to Open(AO), Air to Close (AC) ,selection
criterion etc. MOC (Material of construction), type of actuation,
Diaphragm, Pinch, Gate, Solenoid, Smart control valves, and special designs
of Globe valves. Flow characteristics (Inherent and Installed), Valve
positioners: necessity, types-motion balance and force-balance, effect on
performance of control valve.Control Valve Actuators- Electrical,
Pneumatic, Hydraulic, Electro-mechanical, and Digital actuators. Selection
criteria of valve actuators.
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5 Auxiliary Process Control Components
Construction, working & application area ofSynchros
(Transmitter and Receiver), error detector, Alarm annunciators
Fire and gas detectors (types –flame, gas, fire and gas siren), Square root
extractor, Feeders, Dampers, Temperature regulator, Flow regulator,
Temperature , Flow, Level and, Pressure Switch, Relief valves, safety valves
and rupture disk, Thermostats and Humidistat, Steeper motor

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6 Industrial Control Components
Switches: Construction, symbolic representation, working, application of
Toggle switches, Push buttons, Selector switches, DIP switches, Rotary
switches, Thumbwheel switches , Drum switch, Limit switches- contact, non
contact- type, Switch specifications.
Control Relays: Construction, working, specifications, selection criteria and
applications of Electro-mechanical relay, Reed relay, hermetically sealed
relay, Solid state relays. Interposing relays and Overload relays.
Contactors/starters: Construction, working, specifications and applications of
starters and contactors. Comparison between relays and starters /contactors.
RFID – basic principles, frequencies, Active and passive RFID systems ,
mode of communication, various technologies for In house and outdoor
RFID systems, Basic theory and devices for vision components, sensors and
systems, Image processing and multi camera systems,