Instrumentation Engineering semester 7 syllabus

Instrumentation Engineering semester 7 syllabus – The seventh semester syllabus for instrumentation engineering in Mumbai University Bachelors degree course has four main subjects and one elective subject.These are Biomedical Instrumentation, Advanced Control system,Process Automation and Industrial control.

Instrumentation Engineering semester 7 syllabus


Control System for Heat transfer unit operations:
Heat exchangers: classification as per fluid flow arrangement and
construction, feedback, feed-forward, bypass control schemes, fouling in
heat exchangers.
Boiler controls: Basic designs of boilers- fire-tube and water-tube boilers.
Typical boiler equipment. Terms related- Shrink and swell effect and excess
oxygen, boiler efficiency. Boiler controls- Steam temperature control, Boiler
pressure control, Combustion control-Type 1,2,3 and 4, Drum level controlSingle,
two and three element, Furnace draft control, safety interlocks and
Burner Management System.
Evaporator control: Evaporator terminologies, Types of Evaporator and
multiple effect evaporator, control systems for Evaporator – feedback,
cascade, feed forward and selective control.
Furnace control: Start- up heaters, fired re-boilers, process and safety
2 Control System for Heat and mass transfer unit operations
Distillation column: Basic principle, Distillation equipment and its
accessories. Batch and continuous distillation, Binary product distillation,
multi-product distillation, side-draw product distillation column. Distillation
column control strategies- Top and bottom product composition controls,
Using chromatograph, Pressure controls, Vacuum distillation, Vapour
recompression and pressure control, Feed controls- Column feed controls
and Feed temperature control, economizer
Dryer control: Process of drying, types of dryer- Tray, Vacuum dryer,
fluidized bed, Double drum dryer, rotary, turbo and spray, and their control
Crystallizers: Super-saturation methods, Process of crystallization, types of
crystallizer, control of evaporating crystallizer, cooling crystallizers, vacuum
Reactor control: Reactor characteristics, runaway reaction, various schemes
of temperature control of reactors.
3 Miscellaneous process equipments
Compressor- Classification, Phenomenon of Surge for centrifugal
compressors, Methods of surge control for compressors.
Gas turbine- Introduction, gas turbine layouts, closed cycle gas
turbine, Engine controls.
4 Continuous Process Industries:
Refinery Industry: Process flow diagram, separation, treatment-Hydrodesulphurization
unit, conversion methods- Fluid Catalytic Cracking,
blending, sensors and contrl schemes.
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Iron and steel Industry: Process flow diagram, Sensors and Control
5 Batch Process Industries:
Food processing: Milk pasteurization.
Pharmaceutical industries- Penicillin-G production, sensors and control
6 Safety in Instrumentation control systems:
Area and material classification as per IEC and NEC standard, techniques
used to reduce explosion hazards, intrinsic safety, and installation of
intrinsically safe systems.



Bio-Potential and Measurement:
Structure of Cell, Origin of Bio-potential, electrical activity of cell their
characteristic and specifications. Measurement of RMP and AP. ElectrodeElectrolyte
interface and types of bio-potential electrodes.
2 Physiological Systems and Related Measurement:
Respiratory system- Physiology of respiration and measurements of
respiratory related parameters.
Cardiovascular system- Structure of Heart, Electrical and Mechanical
activity of Heart, ECG measurements and Cardiac arrhythmias.
Nervous system- Nerve cell, neuronal communication, nerve-muscle
physiology, CNS, PNS. Generation of EEG and its measurement. Normal
and abnormal EEG, evoked potential and epilepsy.
Muscular system- Generation of EMG signal, specification and
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Design of ECG amplifier.
3 Cardiovascular Measurement:
Blood Pressure- Direct and Indirect types, Blood Flow- Electromagnetic and
Ultrasonic types, Blood Volume- Types of Plethysmography. (Impedance,
Capacitive and Photoelectric), Cardiac Output- Flicks method, Dye-dilution
and Thermo-dilution type, Heart sound measurement.
4 Life support Instruments:
Pacemaker- Types of Pacemaker, mode of pacing and its application,
Defibrillator- AC and DC Defibrillators and their application, Heart Lung
machine and its application during surgery, Haemodialysis system and the
precautions to be taken during dialysis.
5 Imaging Techniques:
X-Ray- Generation, X-ray tube and its control, X-ray machine and its
application, CT Scan- CT Number, Block Diagram, scanning system and
application, Ultrasound Imaging- Modes of scanning and their application,
MRI- Concepts and image generation, block diagram and its application.
Significance of Electrical Safety:
Physiological effects of electrical current, Shock Hazards from electrical
equipment and methods of accident prevention.



Norms for Signals and Systems, Input-Output relationships,
Nonlinear Control Systems
Definition of nonlinear systems, Difference between linear and
nonlinear systems, characteristics of nonlinear systems, Common
physical nonlinearities
Linearization Methods
Jacobian Linearization, Concept of relative degree, Feedback
linearization for systems with no internal dynamics.
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2. Phase-plane Analysis
Phase-plane Analysis, Basic concepts, phase-trajectories, phase
portrait, Constructing phase portraits-Analytical Methods, Graphical
Method – Delta Method, Determining Time from Phase Portraits,
Singular points and their classification, limit cycles and behavior of
limit cycles.
3. Describing Function Analysis
Describing Function Fundamentals, Describing Functions of
saturation, dead zone, relay and their combinations, Stability analysis
of nonlinear systems via describing function method .
4. Lyapunov Stability Analysis
Stability of equilibria, Asymptotic stability graphically , Lyapunov
stability theorems, Stability analysis of linear systems, Construction of
Lyapunov functions using Krasovskii method and variable gradient
5. Internal Model Control
Introduction to Model-Based Control, Open loop controller Design,
Model Uncertainty and Disturbances, Development of IMC structure,
IMC-Based PID Controller Design
6 Optimal Control
Problem Formulation, Continuous linear regulator problem
(LQR),Solution via Control Algebraic Riccati Equation (CARE)



Automation Fundamentals
Automation and its importance, automation applications, expectations of
automation. Process and factory automation.
Types of plant and control – categories in industry, open loop and close loop
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control functions, continuous processes, discrete processes, and mixed
Automation hierarchy – large control system hierarchy, data quantity &
quality and hierarchical control.
Control system architecture – evolution and current trends, comparison of
different architectures.
2 Programmable Logic Controller
Evolution of PLC, Definition, functions of PLC, Advantages, Architecture,
working of PLC, Scan time, Types & Specifications.
DI-DO-AI-AO examples and ratings, I/O modules, local and remote I/O
expansion, special purpose modules, wiring diagrams of different I/O
modules, communication modules,
Memory & addressing- memory organization (system memory and
application memory), I/O addressing, hardware to software interface.
Development of Relay Logic Ladder Diagram, introduction to PLC
Programming, programming devices, IEC standard PLC programming
languages, LD programming- basic LD instructions, PLC Timers and
Counters: Types and examples, data transfer & program control instructions,
advanced PLC instructions, PID Control using PLC.
Case study:
PLC selection and configuration for any one process applications.
3 Distributed Control System (DCS)
Introduction to DCS. Evolution of DCS, DCS flow sheet symbols,
architecture of DCS. Controller, Input and output modules, Communication
module, data highway, local I/O bus, Workstations, Specifications of DCS.
Introduction of Hierarchical control of memory: Task listing, Higher and
Lower computer level task.
Supervisory computer tasks DCS configuration. Supervisory computer
functions, Control techniques, Supervisory Control Algorithm. DCS &
Supervisory computer displays, advanced control Strategies, computer
interface with DCS.
DCS. System integration with PLCs computer: HMI, Man machine
interface sequencing, Supervisory control, and integration with PLC,
personal computers and direct I/O, serial linkages, network linkages, link
between networks.
Introduction to DCS Programming, Function Block Diagram method for
DCS programming.
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
SCADA introduction, brief history of SCADA, elements of SCADA.
Features of SCADA , MTU- functions of MTU, RTU- Functions of RTU,
Protocol Detail
SCADA as a real time system Communications in SCADA- types &
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methods used, components, Protocol structure and Mediums used for
SCADA Development for any one typical application
Programming for GUI development using SCADA software.
5 Database and Alarm Management, MES, ERP
Database management,
Philosophies of Alarm Management, Alarm reporting, types of alarms
generated and acceptance of alarms.
MES, Integration with enterprise system.
Safety Instrumented System (SIS)
Need for safety instrumentation- risk and risk reduction methods, hazards
analysis. Process control systems and SIS.
Safety Integrity Levels (SIL) and availability. Introduction to the
international functional safety standard IEC61508