# Instrumentation engineering semester 8 syllabus

Instrumentation engineering semester 8 syllabus – The final year syllabus for the eighth semester in Instrumentation Engineering of Mumbai University four year degree course has the subjects of Instrument and System Design, Digital Control System, Instrumentation Project documentation and Implementation as well as a elective subject that can be chosen from a list.

## DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM

Introduction
Block diagram of Digital Control System, Advantages &limitations of Digital
Control System, comparison of continuous data & discrete data control
system, Examples of digital control system, data conversion and quantization,
sampling period considerations, sampling as impulse modulation, sampled
spectra &aliasing, Reconstruction of analog signals, zero order hold, first
order hold.
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principles of discretization- impulse invariance, finite difference
approximation of derivatives, rectangular rules for integration, Bilinear
transformation, Mapping between s-plane & z-plane.
02 Representation of digital control system
Linear difference equations, pulse transfer function, input output model,
examples of first order continuous and discrete time systems, Signal flow
graph applied to digital control systems.
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03 Stability of digital control system in z-domain and Time domain analysis
Jury’s method, R.H. criteria, Comparison of time response of continuous data
and digital control system, steady state analysis of digital control system,
Effect of sampling period on transient response characteristics.
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04 State space analysis
Discrete time state equations in standard canonical forms, similarity
transformation, state transition matrix, solution of discrete time state
equation, Discretization of continuous state space model &its solution.
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05 Pole placement and observer designs
Concept of reachability, Controllability, Constructability & Observability,
Design of controller via Pole placement method, dead beat controller design,
concept of duality, state observer design, Concept of Multi rate output
feedback (MROF) based state estimation.
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06 Transfer Function Approach to Controller Design
Control Structures, Internal Stability and Realizability, Internal Model
Principle and System Type, Well Behaved Signals, Solving Aryabhatta’s
Identity.
Proportional, Integral, Derivative Controllers-Discretization of PID
Controllers, Pole Placement Controller with Performance Specifications,
Implementation of Unstable Controllers.

## Instrumentation Project Documentation & Execution

The Project: Introduction, predictability, structure, flow and deliverables,
Project Planning and Scheduling – project scheduling estimating,
configuration management
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2 The Project Team: Customer, designer and constructor 02
3 Standards used in instrumentation project: ISA, ANSI, & ASTM,
ASME, NFPA, NEMA.
Project Documents.- Need for Engineering Documents, General Guidelines
for Development of Documents, project stage, purpose, scope, contents,
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references for document, team of creation and users.
Major Project Documents:
1) Process Flow Diagram2)
Piping and Instrumentation diagrams (P&ID) – practical applications.
3) Instrument Index Sheet
4) Instrument specifications sheet- for temperature, pressure, level, flow
instruments and control valves.
5) Instrument Location Plan
6) Cable and Tray Routing
7) Cable Schedule
8) JB Schedule
9) Utility requirement
11)Instrument Hook- up diagrams – for control valve, transmitters (DP in
liquid service, dry gas service,) Thermocouple, Temperature switch
line mounted, flow transmitter, typical level switch, typical
instrument air supply, connections for air supply and output. etc.
12)BOM for erection
13) Loop diagrams- pneumatic, electronic and digital data types.
14) Logic diagrams, SAMA Standard
4 Systems Integration: Division of labour, control logic specification, HMI
specification Development, System Architecture Design, Network single line
diagram generation, Other tasks like control system cabinet design, I/O
testing.
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5 Procurement, Installation and Commissioning:
Procurement : Engineering Procurement procedure, PO format, preparation
of tender documents, bids, technical bid evaluation.
Inspection: Need for Inspection, Documents for Inspection,
General Inspection Guidelines, Factory acceptance test (FAT) &
Site acceptance test(SAT) , check lists.
Installation of instruments- Installation standards, installation of
instrument junction box, earthing system, cable laying (cable trays, cable
types, cable glands), tubing, instrument installation guidelines.
Commissioning: Pre-commissioning Procedures, check out procedure of
control valve, DP transmitter etc. calibration, testing of instruments,
operation and maintenance manual, commissioning Procedures. Onsite
training.
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6 Advantages of using software packages for documentation. Overview of
documentation software packages used in industry like SPI -Intools.

## INSTRUMENT AND SYSTEM DESIGN

Design of Transducers:
An overview of static and dynamic performance characteristics of
instruments. Selection criteria for flow, temperature transducers. Design
considerations for transducers such as thermocouple, RTD, orifice plates,
Rota meter. Calibration and installation procedure for thermocouple and
RTD
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2 Design of Control Valve:
Review of flow equations. Valve selection and sizing for liquid service, gas
or vapor service, flashing liquids, mixed phase flow. Control valve noise.
Control valve cavitations. Actuator sizing. Design of safety relief valves and
rupture discs.
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3 Control Panel Design:
Panel selection-size, type, construction and IP classification. GA Diagrams,
Power wiring and distribution, Typical wiring diagrams for
AI,DI,AO,DO,RTD, and T/C modules. Earthing scheme. Panel ventilation,
cooling and illumination. Operating consoles- ergonomics. Wiring
accessories- ferules, lugs, PVC ducts, spiral etc. Wire sizes and color coding.
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Packing, Pressurized panels- X, Y, and Z Purging for installation in
hazardous areas. Ex-proof panels.
4 Electronic product design:
System Engineering, ergonomics, phases involved in electronic product
design.
Enclosure Design :
Packing and enclosures design guidelines, Grounding and shielding, front
panel and cabinet design of an electronic product.
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5 Reliability engineering:
Reliability concepts, causes of failures, bath tub curve, Quality and
reliability, MTTF, MTBF, and MTTR. Availability and Maintainability.
Redundancy and redundant systems.
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6 Control Room Design: Layout and environment