Population Explosion | Causes | Effects | Prevention of Population Explosion | Essay – India is the second most populous country in the world and in another 4 years will overtake China to claim the top spot.There are various reason for this boom in population since the last 4 decades,but improper family planning and uneducation.
This population problem exists more in poorer developing countries like most of the other countries in the Indian Sub continent of Pakistan,Bangladesh and Nepal.These are much smaller countries area wise but have a much higher per square metre average population.
One of the major reason for this explosion is the lack of literacy among the economically backward strata of society and this ultimately results in unemployment and lack of ability to feed,cloth and shelter the entire family due to limited monetary resources.
Meaning of Population Explosion
It is defined as a sudden and uncontrolled increase in the population of a country over a limited period of time.There are various reason for this spike in population and its effects on the general welfare of the people can be disastrous.
For a country like India that does not have a social welfare scheme,many of the poorer section of society have to deal with poverty on their own.
There has been a 12 fold increase in begging in metro cities of India.Families that cannot support their children have to resort to these methods to overcome this problem d earn money for basic necessities like food and clothing.
Some of the reason for this increase in population is:
- Better healthcare,medicines and free medicare for poorer people that has reduced mortality rate.
- Death rate has slowed down and nowadays people live a longer life compared to 50 years back.Now most people live till at least 75 years of age whereas before it was 55.
- Birth rate has increased and infant mortality rate has decreased.Before there used to be deaths at childbirth,but now due to better healthcare,infant mortality rate also has reached an all time low
- Cheaper housing in the metro cities means now almost everyone can afford a home and start a family due to increase in city limits.
CAUSES and FACTORS of Population Explosion
The reasons for population explosion are too many to mention here but there are a few main important points that are:
Housing – In big metro cities
As spoken briefly about before,housing is the most expensive commodity in metro city.Since most of the urban population needs a roof over their head,cheaper housing far from the center of the city has sprung up – in the suburbs.The suburbs in any city house majority of the population.
With the work force increasing in the metro cities,it is only natural for more infrastructure development to occur.Cheaper and smaller apartments have become available at easy bank loans to lower income group families.Families can now have more than 2 offspring without thinking of where to house them,thus increasing the population.
Ratio of Birth to Death
In the last century there was a healthy birth to death ratio of about 1.This meant that there was a balance,for every birth there was a corresponding death.In the last few decades,the number of births have overtaken the number of deaths and thus this is one of the contributing factors of the population explosion.
One of the best points here that have indirectly contributed to population explosion are newer medical technology for child care.New born infants now have access to better vaccines and drugs that prevent early child diseases,thus leading to lower mortality rate.Also cheaper healthcare and medical facilities combines with subsidized drugs for low income groups have contributed to increased population numbers.
This may come as a shock to many of you,but one of the reason why poor families try and have many offspring is so that in the future they can each get a job and the collective income of all the children will be greater for the household.This is a long term plan and often ends up in child labor where the children starting as early as age 6-7 are sent to work.
Each member of the family contributes to the household income and is seen as – larger the family-larger the combined income.
The major contributors to the population explosion are the financially lower sections of society.Most of the people belonging to below the poverty line have less access to education and prefer to earn rather than study.Due to this they are not informed about the ill health of having a large family,nor of family planning.Only in school do we learn and realize how population adversely affects our country.
In all small towns,villages,tier 1 and tier 2 cities, the government has given precedence to primary healthcare for toddlers and children.Since the last 2 decades all the governments that came into power have tried to woo the women voters by offering subsidized maternity healthcare options to them.
Due to this,municipal and government run hospitals and clinics charge very low fees – less than Rs.10 for medical consultation with drugs included for low income groups.
This cheap healthcare has prevented the premature deaths of millions of children and women and has added to the population.
Effects of Population Explosion
Effect on jobs
Due to heavy influx of population from other smaller towns to tier 1 cities as well as increase in population,the number of jobs is not enough for everyone.The number of businesses has not increased as much as the number of job aspirants,hence this has led to a rise in unemployment.
Effect on Housing
Due to rise in population,there is also a similar rise in demand for cheap housing.This has led to lots of development in the suburban areas of the cities,far from the city centre.An adverse effect of his has been the increase in prices of property which has seen an almost exponential growth rate in the last 2 decades.It is now un affordable to purchase a flat close the city center,only cheap housing is available far in the suburbs,which means a long commute by train or bus to work
Effect on Infrastructure / Sanitation
Since the major bulk of the population has move dto the suburbs,they have to commute everyday to work.This has led to rise in development of infrastructure to handle these masses.The civic and municipal facilities like power,sanitation,roads and transport needs to be also continuously upgraded and improved to handle basic necessities.
Effect on Traffic
A direct consequence to the huge population living i the suburbs is that they need to travel everyday in cheap transport.Trains,buses and taxis need to be made available for the general public.The population explosion has had a negative impact on traffic too,as office rush times sees hordes of people that throng the metro subways,trains,and other public transport.
The effect it has on more vehicular traffic leading to highly unsafe levels of pollution is also a major concern
Unless we teach and advocate population to our future generations,our cities will be unlivable in the next 50 years.