# SRMJEE SRMJEEH Engineering and health services syllabus exam pattern

**SRMJEE SRMJEEH Engineering and health services syllabus exam pattern – **The syllabus and exam pattern for the SRM Institute of Science and Technology entrance exam in Engineering and Health Services has the test based on four subjects. Maths,Chemistry,Physics and Biology for students to fill up empty seats in 4 campuses around the country.

## SRMJEE Exam Paper Pattern and marks breakup.

## SRMJEE SRMJEEH Engineering and health services syllabus exam pattern

SYLLABUS

**PART 1 – PHYSICS (35 Questions)**

UNIT 1: Units and Measurement

Units for measurement, system of units-S.I., fundamental and derived units, measurements – errors in measurement – significant figures, dimensions – dimensional analysis – applications.

UNIT 2: Mechanics

Kinematics: Motion in one dimension – uniform and non-uniform motion – uniformly accelerated motion-scalar and vector quantities – motion in two dimension.

Laws of Motion: Newton’s laws of motion – force and inertia – impulse and momentum – law of conservation of linear momentum – applications – projectile motion-uniform circular motion -friction – laws of friction – applications – centripetal force.

Work, Energy and Power: Work – energy- potential energy and kinetic energy – power – collisionelastic and inelastic collisions.

Rotational motion: Centre of mass-torque-angular momentum and its conservation – moment of inertia – theorems of moment of inertia.

UNIT 3: Gravitation, Mechanics of Solids and Fluids

Gravitation: The universal law of gravitation, acceleration due to gravity – variation of ‘g’ with altitude, latitude and depth – gravitation potential – escape velocity and orbital velocity – geostationary satellites – Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.

Mechanics of solids and fluids: Solids – elastic behaviour, stress-strain – Hooke’s law – Modulli of elasticity – relation between them – surface tension capillarity – applications – viscosity – Poiseuille’s formula – Stokes law applications – streamline and turbulent flow – Reynolds number – Bernoulli’s theorem – applications.

UNIT 4: Oscillations and Wave Motion

Oscillations: Periodic motion – simple harmonic motion – equations of motion oscillations of spring simple pendulum-free, forced and damped oscillations – resonance-applications.

Wave motion: longitudinal and transverse waves – velocity of wave motion in different media Newton’s formula – Laplace’s correction – super position of waves – progressive and standing waves – sonometer – air columns – Doppler effect and its applications.

UNIT 5: Heat and Thermodynamics

Kinetic theory of gases and Thermal properties : Postulates – pressure of a gas – specific heat capacity – relation between Cp and Cv – heat transfer – conduction – convection – radiation – thermal

conductivity of solids – black body radiations – Kirchoff’s law – Wien’s displacement law – Stefan’s law – Newton’s law of cooling.

Thermodyanmics : zeroth law of thermodynamics – first law of thermodynamics – thermodynamical processes – isothermal and adiabatic-reversible and irreversible process – second law of thermodynamics – Carnot’s engine.

UNIT 6: Ray and Wave Optics

Ray Optics: Reflection and refraction of light – total internal reflection – velocity of light determination – deviation and dispersion of light by a prism – lens formula magnification – power of lens – Combination of thin lenses in contact – microscope – astronomical telescope.

Wave Optics : Wavefront – Huygens principle – wave nature of light – interference – Young’s double slit experiment – diffraction and polarization.

UNIT 7: Electricity and Magnetism

Electrostatics: Coulomb’s inverse square law – dielectric constant – electric field – electric lines of force – electric dipole – electric potential – potential difference – electric flux – Gauss theorem electrostatic induction – capacitor capacitors in parallel and series – action of points – lightning arrester.

Current Electricity: Electric current – drift velocity of electrons – Ohm’s law – electrical resistivity and conductivity – super conductivity – Kirchoff’s law- Wheatstone’s bridge – principle of potentiometer electric power.

Magnetism and Magnetic effects of current: Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements magnetic field due to a magnetic dipole – torque on a magnetic dipole – tangent law, tangent galvano meter deflection magnetometer – magnetic properties of a material – dia, para and ferromagnetic materials – applications. Magnetic effects of electric current – Bio Savart law – force on a moving charge in an uniform magnetic field – moving coil galvanometer – conversion of a galvanometer into voltmeter and ammeter.

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current :Faraday’s law – Lenz law of electromagnetic induction – self inductance – mutual inductance – Flemming’s right hand rule – methods of inducing emf-eddy current. Alternating currents – LCR series circuit – AC generator – transformer.

UNIT 8: Atomic Physics and Relativity

Atomic Physics: Atomic structure – properties of cathode rays and positive rays – specific charge of an electron – atom model – Thomson atom model – Rutherford atom model – Bohr atom model merits and demerits – quantum numbers – X-rays – production – properties – Bragg’s law – Bragg’s Xray spectro meter photo electric effect – laser – spontaneous and stimulated emission – laser action characteristics of laser light – ruby laser-applications of laser.

Relativity: Einstein’s mass energy relation-variation of mass with velocity.

UNIT 9: Dual Nature of Matter and Nuclear Physics

Dual Nature of Matter: Matter waves-wave nature of particles-De Broglie wavelength-electron microscope.

Nuclear Physics: Nuclear radius, mass, binding energy, density, isotopes, mass defect – Bainbridge mass spectrometer-nuclear forces neutron discovery – radioactivity – ?, ? and ? decay – half life and mean life – artificial radio activity – radio isotopes – radio carbon dating – radiation hazards. Nuclear fission – nuclear reactor – nuclear fusion – hydrogen bomb cosmic rays – elementary particles.

UNIT 10: Electronics and Communication

Electronics: Semiconductors – doping-types – PN junction diode – biasing – diode as a Rectifier – transistors – transistor characteristics – amplifier – gain – feedback in amplifiers – logic gates – basic logic gates – NOT, OR, AND, NOR, NAND – universal gates -De Morgan’s theorems.

Communication: space communication propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere – sky and space wave propagation – modulation types – demodulation – microwaves – radars.

## PART 2 – CHEMISTRY (35 Questions)

UNIT 1: Atomic Structure

Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory; concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; physical quantities and their measurements in chemistry,

Precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis;

Laws of chemical combination; atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; chemical equations and stoichiometry.

Discovery of sub-atomic particles (electron, proton and neutron); Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect;

Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model;

Dual nature of matter, De-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features,

Quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d-orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; rules for filling electrons in orbitals

Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of halffilled and completely filled orbitals.

UNIT 2: States of Matter

Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.

Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg’s Law and its applications; unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.

Liquid State: Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only). Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws-Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure; concept of absolute scale of temperature; ideal gas equation, kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; real gases, deviation from ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, Vander Waals equation, liquefaction of gases, critical constants. UNIT 3: Chemical Families–Periodic Properties

Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s & p block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements, atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity. Transition elements –d -block elements, inner transition elements – f-block elements. Ionization energy, electron affinity, lanthanides and actinides – general characteristics. Coordination Chemistry: Coordination compounds, nomenclature: terminology – Werner’s coordination theory. Applications of coordination compounds.

UNIT 4: Chemical Bonding, Molecular Structure and s-& p- block elements

Covalent bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules. Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory – Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; resonance.

Molecular orbital theory – Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.

s-, p- block elements: Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications. Extractive metallurgy of sodium, lithium, properties of alkali metals, basic nature of oxides and hydroxides, compounds of alkaline earth metals, compounds of boron. Oxides, carbides, halides and sulphides of carbon group. Oxides – classification – acidic, basic, neutral, peroxide and amphoteric oxides.

UNIT 5 : Chemical Thermodynamics & Energetics

First law of thermodynamics, Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and Enthalpy, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, numerical, based on these concepts. Enthalpies of reactions (enthalpy of neutralization, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of fusion and vaporization).

Second law of thermodynamics – Spontaneity of processes; S of the universe and G of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Go (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.

UNIT 6: Solutions

Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – Molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law – ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; abnormal value of molar mass, Van’t Hoff factor and its significance.

UNIT 7: Chemical Equilibrium

Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium. Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid-liquid, liquid-gas and solid-gas equilibria, Henry’s law, Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of G and Go in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.

Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.

UNIT 8: Electrochemistry

Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications. Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half-cell and cell reactions, emf of a galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; dry cell and lead accumulator; fuel cells; corrosion and its prevention.

UNIT 9: Surface Chemistry, Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis and Nuclear Chemistry

Adsorption – Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.

Catalysis – Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.

Colloidal state – Distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids-lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; emulsions and their characteristics.

Rate of reaction, instantaneous rate of reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions – factors affecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of

temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalyst. Rate law expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable examples).

Units of rates and specific rate constants. Order of reaction and effect of concentration (study will be confined to first order only). Theories of catalysis adsorption theory-some of important industrial process using catalysts.

Nuclear Chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars: Properties of ?, ? and ? rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon datting; Stability of nuclei with respect to protonneutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

UNIT 10: Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds

Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography– principles and their applications. Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.

Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.

UNIT 11: Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry

Tetravalency of carbon; shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p); classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: -C=C-, -C C- and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; homologous series; isomerism–structural and stereoisomerism.

Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)

Covalent bond fission– Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles. Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.

Common types of organic reactions – Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.

UNIT 12: Hydrocarbons

Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.

Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.

Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); ozonolysis, oxidation, and polymerization.

Alkynes – Acidic character; addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; polymerization. aromatic hydrocarbons – nomenclature, benzene–structure and aromaticity;

mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel-Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono Substituted benzene.

UNIT 13: Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration. Reaction of hydroxy derivatives.

Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer–Tiemann reaction. Addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones.

Ethers: Structure.

Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.

Carboxylic acids: Reactions, Acidic strength and factors affecting it; reactions of acid derivaties.

UNIT 14: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.

Diazonium salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

UNIT 15: Polymers

General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization–addition and condensation, copolymerization; natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.

UNIT 16: Bio Molecules

Carbohydrates–Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen). Proteins – Elementary Idea of–amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes. Vitamins – Classification and functions.

Nucleic acids – Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.

**PART 3 – MATHEMATICS (35 Questions) **

UNIT 1: Sets, Relations and Functions

Sets and their representations, union, intersection and complements of sets and their algebraic properties, relations, equivalence relations, mappings, one-one, into and onto mappings, composition of mappings.

Trigonometrical identities and equations. Inverse trigonometric functions and their properties. Properties of triangles, including, incentre, circumcentre and orthocenter, solution of triangles.

UNIT 2: Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

Complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane. Argand diagram. Algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number. Cube roots of unity, triangle inequality.

Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots; symmetric functions of roots, equations reducible to quadratic equations.

UNIT 3: Matrices, Determinants and their applications

Determinants and matrices of order two and three, properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants. Addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and inverse of matrix.

Computing the rank of a matrix–test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations using determinants and matrices.

UNIT 4: Combinatorics

Permutations and Combinations : Fundamental principle of counting: permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, meaning of P(n,r) and C(n,r). Simple applications.

Mathematical Induction and its Applications : Stating and interpreting the principle of mathematical induction. Using it to prove formula and facts.

UNIT 5: Algebra

Binomial theorem and its Applications : Binomial theorem for a positive integral index; general term and middle term; Binomial theorem for any index. Properties of binomial coefficients. Simple applications for approximations.

Sequences and Series : Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions. Insertion of arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means between two given numbers. Relation between A.M., G.M. and H.M. arithmetic, geometric series, exponential and logarithmic series.

UNIT 6: Differential Calculus and its applications

Polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions. Inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity, differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions, derivatives of order up to two.

Applications of Differential Calculus : Rate of change of quantities, monotonic–increasing and decreasing functions, maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals, Rolle’s and Lagrange’s mean value theorems.

UNIT 7: Integral Calculus & Differential Equations of first order

Integral as an anti-derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities. Integral as limit of a sum. Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals; Determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves.

Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables. Solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations and those of the type dy/dx + p(x)y=q(x)

UNIT 8: Analytical Geometry

Straight Lines in Two Dimensions : Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates in plane, distance formula, area of a triangle, condition for the collinearity of three points and section formula, centroid and in-centre of a triangle, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes. Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line. Equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines, homogeneous equation of second degree in x and y, angle between pair of lines through the origin, combined equation of the bisectors of the angles between a pair of lines, condition for the general second degree equation to represent a pair of lines, point of intersection and angle between two lines.

Circles in Two Dimensions : Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle in the parametric form, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to the circle, length of the tangent, equation of the tangent, equation of a family of circles through the intersection of two circles, condition for two intersecting circles to be orthogonal.

Conic Sections in Two Dimensions : Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard form, condition for y = mx+c to be a tangent and point(s) of tangency.

Unit 9 : Vector Algebra

Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product. Application of vectors to plane geometry.

UNIT 10: Statistics and Probability

Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median and mode of grouped and ungrouped data. Calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.

Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability and their applications; Conditional probability; Baye’s theorem, probability distribution of a random variable; binomial and Poisson distributions and their properties.

**PART 4: BIOLOGY (50 QUESTIONS) **

**BOTANY **

Unit 1: Taxonomy of Angiosperm

Types of classifications – Artificial, Natural, Phylogenetic – Biosystematics – Binomial Nomenclature – Herbaria and their uses – Bentham and Hooker’s classification of plants – Families Malvaceae, Solanaceae – Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae and Economic Importance.

Unit 2: Plant Anatomy

Tissues and Tissue System – anatomy of monocot and dicot roots – anatomy of Monocot and dicot stem and anatomy of dicot leaf.

Unit 3: Cell Biology and Genetics

Chromosomes – Structure and types – genes and genome – Linkage and crossing over – Gene mapping – recombination of chromosomes – mutation – chromosomal aberration – DNA as genetical material – Structure of DNA – replication of DNA – Structure of RNA and its type.

Unit 4: Biotechnology

Recombinant DNA technology – Transgenic plants with beneficial traits – plant tissue culture and its application – Protoplasmic fusion – Bioethics in plant genetic engineering.

Unit 5: Plant Physiology

Photosynthesis – Significance – site of photosynthesis – photochemical and biosynthetic phases – electron transport system – cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation – C3 and C4 pathway – photorespiration – factor affecting photosynthesis

Respiration: Mode of nutrition – autotrophic – heterotropic – saprophytic – parasitic and insectivorous plants – chemosynthesis – respiration – mechanism of glycolysis – Kreb’s cycle – pentose pathway – anaerobic respiration – respiratory quotient

Plant growth and development: Ccompensation point – fermentation – plant growth – growth regulators – phytohormones – auxin – gibberellins – cytokinins – ethylene and abscisic acid – photoperiodism and vernalisation.

Unit 6: Biology in Human Welfare

Food production – breeding experiments – improved varieties and role of biofertilizer – crop diseases and their control – biopesticides – genetically modified food – biowar – biopiracy – biopatent – sustained agriculture and medicinal plants including microbes – Economic importance food yielding (rice) – Oil yielding (groundnut) fibre yielding (cotton) and timber yielding (teak).

**ZOOLOGY**

Unit 1: Human Physiology

Nutrition – introduction – carbohydrates – proteins – lipids – vitamins mineral – water – balanced diet – calorie value – (ICBM standard) – obesity – hyperglycemia – hypoglycemia – malnutrition. Digestion – enzymes and enzyme action – brief account of following – dental caries – root canal therapy – peptic ulcer-Hernia-Appendicitis – Gallbladder stone – Liver cirrhosis – Hepatitis.

Bones and joints (major types) fractures – Dislocations – Arthritis – Rickets and Osteomalasia – orthopaedies – Gout.

Muscles – muscle action – muscle tone – Rigor mortis – muscle pull (hernia) isometric and aerobic exercises (body building) myasthenia gravis.

Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration – Inspiration Expiration – Exchange of gases at alveolar level – control of respiration – pneumonia – pleurisy – tuberculosis – bronchitis – breathing exercise.

Circulation – functioning of heart origin and conduction of heart beat – artificial pacemaker – coronary blood vessels and its significance – myocardial infraction – angina pectoria – angiogram – angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery – atherosclerosis – heart attack – heart block – ECG and echo cardiography-heart valves-rheumatic heart disease (RHD) ICCU-arterial and venous systemsblood pressure pulse rate-heart transplantation – resuscitation in heart attack (First aid) blood components – functions – plasma-corpuscles – blood clottinganti coagulants- thrombosis-embolismblood related diseases like polycythemia – leukemia – lymph fluid.

Physiological Co-ordination System: Brain-functioning of different regions – memory-sleep-stroke- Alzheimer’s disease – meningitis – Brain fever –c onditioned reflex electro encephalography- right brain left brain concept – spinal cord – functioning – reflex action – CSF – chemical coordination pituitary (Hormones of adeno hypophysis and their regulation) thyroid – parathyroid hormones insulin and glucogon – hormones of adrenal cortex and medulla – Reproductive hormones – problems related to secretion, non secretion of hormones.

Receptor Organs: Eye – focussing mechanism and photo chemistry of retina – short sightedness – longsightedness – optometry – retinopathy- cataract – Lens replacement- nectalopia – eye infectionconjunctivities – glaucoma – eye care – ear-hearing mechanism – organ of corti – hearing impairments and aids – noise pollution and its importance – skin – melanin functions – Effect of solar radiation / UV skin grafting – dermatitis – tongue – gustatory reception.

Excretion: Ureotelism – urea-biosynthesis (ornithine cycle) nephron ultrafiltration – tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion – renal failure – dialysis kidney stone formation kidney transplantation – diabetes.

Reproductive System: Brief account of spermatogenesis and oogenesis – menstrual cycle – in vitro fertilization – birth control

Unit 2: Microbiology

Introduction – history of medical microbiology – The influence of Pasteur, Koch and Lister – virology – structure genetics culture and diseases – AIDS and its control-bacteriology structure, genetics and diseases – protozoan microbiology – Diseases oriented – pathogenecity of micro organism-anti microbial resistance chemotherapy. Single cell protein. Microbial culture technique and its applications – strain Isolation and Improvement – Isolation of microbial products.

Unit 3: Immunology

Innate immunity (Non specific) – anatomical barriers – physiological barriers – phagocytic barriers lymphoidal organs – thymus – bursa of fabricius – peripheral lymphoid organs – lymph nodes – spleen – antibodiesimmuno globulins – regions of polypeptide chain – Transplantation immunologyclassification of grafts -genetic basis of organ transplantimmune system disorder.

Unit 4: Modern Genetics and Animal Biotechnology

Introduction – scope – human genetics karyotyping chromosome gene mapping – recombinant DNA technology and segmenting – genetic diseases – human genome project – cloning – transgenic organisms – Genetically Modified Organism(GMO) – gene therapy – animal cell culture and its applications – stem cell technology – bioethics of genetic engineering in animals. Bio informatics application DNA sequencing and protein structure – biological database.

Unit 5: Environmental Science

Human population and explosion-issue – global warming crisis – green house effect – ozone layer depletion – waste management – biodiversity conservation (biosphere reserve) government and nongovernmental organization involved – energy crisis and environmental impact – poverty and environment – freshwater crisis and management.

Unit 6: Applied Biology

Livestock and management dairy – breed of cattle – miltch breed – drought breed dual purpose common diseases and control – exotic and cross breeds – techniques adapted in cattle breeding. Poultry – farming techniques – breeds-farming method – poultry diseases – economic value Pisciculture – fish farming – edible fishes of Tamil Nadu. Medical lab techniques- stethescopesphygmomonometer Haemocytometer – urine sugar analysis – ECG-PQRST Wave CT Scan Endoscopic (laproscopic) techniques artificial pace maker – auto analyzer.

Unit 7: Theories of Evolution

Lamarckism – Darwinism – Neodarwimsm/Modern concept of natural selection – species of concept – origin of species and isolating