# SAAT Syllabus – Siksha O Anusandhan exam syllabus

**SAAT Syllabus – Siksha O Anusandhan exam syllabus** – In order to get admission into engineering B.tech degree courses from this university you need to study according to the course syllabus of the entrance exam in the subjects of Physics, Chemistry , Mathematics and Biology – which is divided into Botany and Zoology.

Contents

## SAAT Syllabus – Siksha O Anusandhan exam syllabus

**(A) PHYSICS**

UNIT 1: PHYSICS AND MEASUREMENT

Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy and precision

of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and

its applications.

UNIT 2: KINEMATICS

Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and

nonuniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time,

position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion. Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and

Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector. Relative Velocity,

Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.

UNIT 3: LAWS OF MOTION

Force and Inertia, Newton’s First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s Second Law of motion; Impulse;

Newton’s Third Law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of

concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular

motion: Centripetal force and its applications.

UNIT 4: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, workenergy theorem,

power. Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and nonconservative

forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

UNIT 5: ROTATIONAL MOTION

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion;

moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications;

moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel

and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.

UNIT 6: GRAVITATION

The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Kepler’s

laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential en

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uniform electric field. Electric flux, Gauss’s law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long

uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical

shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges;

Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series

and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the

plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.

UNIT 12: CURRRENT ELECTRICITY

Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I

characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour

code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.

Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series

and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge. Potentiometer –

principle and its applications.

UNIT 13: MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM

Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to

infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and

electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a currentcarrying

conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current- carrying conductorsdefinition

of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil

galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic

dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s

magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances. Magnetic susceptibility and

permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

UNIT 14: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and

mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and

impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator

and transformer.

UNIT 15: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, micro waves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays).

Applications of e.m. waves. Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula,

Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula,

Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope

(reflecting and refracting) and their magnifyingpowers. Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens’ principle, Laws

of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and

expression for fringe width. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of

microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane

polarized light and Polaroids.

UNIT 16: DUAL NATURE OF MATTER ANDRADIATION

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric

equation; particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation. DavissonGermer

experiment.

UNIT 17: ATOMS AND NUCLEI

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen

spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha,

beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect;

binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

UNIT 18: ELECTRONIC DEVICES

Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V

characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction

transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter

configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

UNIT 19: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for

modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium,

Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only).

## B. CHEMISTRY

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

UNIT 1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY

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Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical

quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units,

dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass,

percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.

UNIT 2: STATES OF MATTER

Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states. Gaseous State:Measurable properties of gases;

Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure;

Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates);

Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal

behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation. Liquid State: Properties of liquids – vapour

pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only). Solid

State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids

(elementary idea); Bragg’s Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp

lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and

dielectric properties.

UNIT 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation,

photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of

the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model; Dual

nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum

mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one

electron wave functions; Variation of and 2, with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal,

angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d – orbitals,

electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli’s

exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and

completely filled orbitals.

UNIT 4: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCURE

Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds. Ionic Bonding:

Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.

Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair

Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules. Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding:

Valence bond theory – Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals;

Resonance. Molecular Orbital Theory – Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding,

antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic

molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy. Elementary idea of metallic bonding.

Hydrogen bonding and its applications.

UNIT 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS

Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state

functions, types of processes. First law of thermodynamics- Concept of work, heat internal energy and

enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond

dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and

solution. Second law of thermodynamics; Spontaneity of processes; S of the universe and G of the system as

criteria for spontaneity, G0 (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.

UNIT 6: SOLUTIONS

Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by

volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour

pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions –

relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic

pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t

Hoff factor and its significance.

UNIT 7: EQUILIBRIUM

Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium. Equilibria involving physical processes:Solid -liquid,

liquid – gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical

processes. Equilibria involving chemical processes:

Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of G and Go

in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst;

Le Chatelier’s principle. Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various

concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Brnsted – Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid – base equilibria

(including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect,

hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer

solutions.

UNIT 8: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

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Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning

oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions. Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in

electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and

their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications. Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic

and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential,

half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications;

Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.

UNIT 9 : CHEMICAL KINETICS

Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and

catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and

its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half – lives,

effect of temperature on rate of reactions – Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision

theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).

UNIT-10 : SURFACE CHEMISTRY

Adsorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on

solids – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions. Colloidal state -distinction

among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids – lyophilic, lyophobic; multi

molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall

effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their

characteristics.

**INORGANIC CHEMISTRY**

UNIT 11: CLASSIFICATON OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES

Modem periodic law and present form of the periodictable, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in

properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation

states and chemical reactivity.

UNIT 12: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS

Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals –

concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the

extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of

metals.

UNIT 13: HYDROGEN

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and

chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen

peroxide; Hydrogen as a fuel.

UNIT 14: S – BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)

Group – 1 and 2 Elements General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and

chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal

relationships. Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate and sodium

hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg

and Ca.

UNIT 15: P – BLOCK ELEMENTS

Group – 13 to Group 18 Elements General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical

and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first

element in each group. Groupwise study of the p – block elements Group – 13 Preparation, properties and uses

of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.

Group – 14 Allotropes of carbon, tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and zeolites.

Group – 15 Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; All otrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation,

properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5);

Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus. Group – 16 Preparation, properties, structures and uses of

ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its

industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur. Group – 17 Preparation, properties and uses of

hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and

oxides and oxoacids of halogens. Group -18 Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and

oxides of xenon.

UNIT 16: d – and f – BLOCK ELEMENTS

Transition Elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general

trends in properties of the first row transition elements – physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation

states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial

compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4 Inner

Transition Elements Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.

Actinoids -Electronic configuration and oxidation states.

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UNIT 17: CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS

Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory; ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation;

IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach

and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination

compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).

UNIT 18: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

Environmental pollution – Atmospheric, water and soil. Atmospheric pollution- Tropospheric and Stratospheric

Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their

sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain; Particulate

pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention. Stratospheric

pollution-Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism and effects. Water

Pollution -Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects

and prevention. Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides),

their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

19: PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles

and their applications. Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.

Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur,

phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic

quantitative analysis.

UNIT 20: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic

compounds based on functional groups: – C = C – , – C h C – and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen

and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism structural and stereoisomerism. Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)

Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of

carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles. Electronic displacement in a covalent bond –

Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Common types of organic reactions :

substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.

UNIT 21: HYDROCARBONS

Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.

Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (ofethane); Mechanism of halogenation of

alkanes. Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen,

halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.

Alkynes – Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.

Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic

substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of

functional group in mono-substituted benzene.

UNIT 22: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HALOGENS

General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution

reactions.Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform.

UNIT 23: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS Alcohols:

Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration. Phenols: Acidic nature,

electrophilic substitution reaction s: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction.

Ethers: Structure. Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group,

relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions

(addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and

Clemmensen); acidity of – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical

tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

Acidic strength and factors affecting it.

UNIT 24: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. Amines: Nomenclature, classification,

structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic

character. Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

UNIT 25: POLYMERS

General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization- addition and

condensation, copolymerization; Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers

with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.

UNIT 26: BIOMOLECULES

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General introduction and importance of biomolecules .

CARBOHYDRATES – Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent

monosaccharides of oligos acchorides (sucrose, lactose and maltose).

PROTEINS – Elementary Idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary,

tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.

VITAMINS – Classification and functions.

NUCLEIC ACIDS –

Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.

UNIT 27: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility

drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins – their meaning and common examples. Chemicals in food –

Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples. Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents,

cleansing action.

## (C) Mathematics

UNIT 1 : SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS:

Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties;

Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations,functions;. oneone, into and onto functions,

composition of functions.

UNIT 2 : COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS:

Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their

representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude)

of a complex number, square root of a

complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their

solutions. Relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with

given roots.

UNIT 3 : MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS:

Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties

of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of

inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and

solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.

UNIT 4 : PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS:

Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, Meaning of P

(n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications.

UNIT 5 : MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION:

Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications.

UNIT 6 : BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS:

Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term,properties of Binomial

coefficients and simple applications.

UNIT 7 : SEQUENCES AND SERIES:

Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers.

Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: S n, S n2, Sn3. Arithmetico – Geometric

progression.

UNIT 8 : LIMIT, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY:

Real valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential

functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability.

Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric,

inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto

two. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities,

monotonic increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and

normals.

UNIT 9 : INTEGRAL CALCULUS:

Integral as an anti derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and

logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using

trigonometric identities. Evaluation of simple integrals of the type

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? ? ? ?

2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2 2

, , ,

,

, ,

dx dx dx

x a a x x a

dx dx

a x ax bx c

dx px q dx px q dx

ax bx c ax bx c ax bx c

a x dx x a dx

? ? ?

? ? ?

? ?

? ? ? ? ? ?

? ?

? ? ?

? ?

? ? ?

? ?

Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of

definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.

UNIT 10: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS:

Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of

differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear

differential equations of the type:

? ? ? ?

dy

p x y q x

dx

? ?

UNIT 11: COORDINATE GEOMETRY:

Cartesian system of rectangular coordinates in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its

equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the

coordinate axes. Straight lines Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two

lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distanceof a point from a line, equations of internal and

external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a

triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Circles, conic

sections Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre,

equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle

with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent.

Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition

for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.

UNIT 12: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY:

Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction

cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its

equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.

UNIT 13: VECTOR ALGEBRA:

Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional

space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product.

UNIT 14: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY:

Measures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of

standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data. Probability: Probability of

an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye’s theorem, probability distribution of a

random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.

UNIT 15: TRIGONOMETRY:

Trigonometrical identities and equations. Trigonometrical functions. Inverse trigonometrical functions and

their properties. Heights and Distances.

UNIT 16: MATHEMATICAL REASONING:

Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of tautology,

contradiction, converse and contrapositive.

## (D) BIOLOGY (A-BOTANY)

Unit–I : History

History, botanical studies, branches of botany, brief classification of plant kingdom. Scope of Botany, cell

Biology, cell theory.

Unit–II : Plant cell

Structure of typical plant cell, cell wall and cell membrane, protoplasm – physical and chemical nature, cell

organelle – structure and functions, nucleus, Iysosomes, golgi bodies, plastids, ribosomes, mitochondria,

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chromosomes, spherosomes, Important compounds of cell, water, amino acids, carbohydrates, fats,

nucleotides, nucleic acids.

Cell inclusions, physical and chemical nature and functions of enzymes, vitamins and hormones, mode of

enzyme action, cell cycle, Mitosis; Meiosis.

Unit–III : Complexities of plant life

Meristematic tissues, permanent, simple and complex tissues, Internal structure of dicot and monocot systems

and roots, Internal structure of Isobilateral and Dorsiventral with functions of different tissues, Normal,

secondary growth in dicot stems.

Unit–IV : Morphology of angiosperms

Normal and Modified stems, roots and leaves, Inflorescence, Flower and its parts, floral diagram and floral

formula, pollination, fertilization, fruits.

Unit–V : Taxonomy of flowering plants

Principle and units of classification (species, genus, family), knowledge of important families and their

economic importance.

Unit–VI : Continuity of plant life

Genetics (elementary knowledge), mitosis and meiosis and their significance, principle of Mendel’s law of

inheritance, monohybrid and dihybrid ratio, concept of gene, elementary idea of gene action, evolution,

evidence, theories and mechanism of evolution, variation and mutation, role of mutation in agriculture, origin

of species.

Unit–VII : Microorganisms and diversities of plant life : Elementary idea and economic importance of virus,

bacteria, fungi, algae and lichen, elementary idea of gryophytes, pterodophytes and gymnosperms.

Unit–VIII : Processes in plants

Absorption and transport of water and minerals, transpiration, stomatal mechanism, life energy and ATP,

respiration and fermentation, photosynthesis, elementary idea of protein synthesis, growth, reproduction,

movements (with special reference to geotrposim and phototropism).

Unit–IX : Environmental biology

Man and his environment, biotic community, ecological adaptations (hydrophytes and xerophytes).

Unit–X : Botany and human welfare

Agricultural crops – Brief description and economic importance of crop plants like rice, gram (green gram)

Jute, groundnut, sugarcane, and potato.

Unit–XI : Common plant diseases

control of blight in rice, rot of sugarcane, forestry, genetic conservation and crop improvement.

Unit–XII: Genetic engineering and biotechnology

Recombinant DNA, gene library, transgenic plants, fermentation, bakery, antibiotics, monochloral antibodies.

(B-ZOOLOGY)

Unit–I : Animal world

Definition, scope and branch of zoology. Species concept, bionomical nomenclature, classification, scientific

name of some common animals: Fishes-rohu, bhakura, mrigal, Amphibians-frog, toad, Reptiles-houselizard,

garden lizard, crocodile, turtle, snakes-cobra, krait, birds-fowl. peacock, pigeon, mammals-tiger, lion,

elephant, cat, dog, cow, rabbit & man.

Unit–II : Diversity of life: Kingdom-protasia

General characters of the phylum, protozoa, Classification – amoeba, entamoeba, paramoecium, euglena,

trypanosoma, plasmodium.

Kingdom-animalia : Concept of body plan, symmetry, coelom, germ layershomeothermic and poikilothermic

animals.

General characters of Non-chordata like – porifera, coelenterata, platy helminthes, nematahelminthes,

annelida, arthopoda, mollusca, echinodermata & hemichrhordata.

Unit–III : Multi Cellularity in Animals

Animal tissues – Types- epithelial, connective (details about blood and lymph), muscular & nervous- organs &

organ systems.

Unit–IV : Locomotion

Locomotory organelles in protozoans, hydra, annelid, brief account of joints and muscles in movement of man,

modes of nutrition – Nutrition in amoeba.

Digestive system of man – Structure and function of alimentary canal associated glands, physiology of digestion

and absorption.

Unit–V : Types of Respiration

Structure and function of respiratory system in .man : Respiratory organs, mechanics of pulmonary

resipiration, plunomary exchange of gas, transport of gases, glycolysis & Kreb’s cycle, respiratory quotient.

Unit–VI : Digestive System

SIKSHA ‘O’ ANUSANDHAN DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY

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Organs, Digestion & absorption.

Unit–VII : Types of Circulation

Open circulation, closed circulatory system in man: Structure of Heart, cardiac cycle, arteries, veins,

capillaries, portal system, coronary circulation, blood pressure, respiratory pigments, group and coagulation.

Unit–VIII : Excretory Reproduction in Man

Structure and function of kidney.

Unit–IX : Control and coordination in Man

Nervous systemcentral, peripheral and autonomic sense organs, endocrine system, Mechanism of Hormone

action.

Unit–X : Types of Reproduction

Asexual, binary & multiple fission, budding, cellular growth, re-generation, ageing.

Sexual reproduction in man – male & female reproductive system, menstrual cycle.

Unit–XI : Genetics

Chromosomes and heredity: heredity and viriation, mendelian principle, laws of heredity, chromosomes,

Interaction of genes, chromosomal variation.

Unit–XII : Evolution

Origin of life Anatomical, embryological biochemical, palaentological, and biogeographical evidences of

evolutions, Darwin’s theory of natural selection, modern synthetic theory.

Unit–XIII : Environmental Biology

Meaning of ecology environment, habitat and niche, biosphere and ecosystem, ecological adaptations,

biodiversity.

Environmental Pollution – Source, effects and control of air, water and sound pollution, deforestation, global

warming, climate change.

Unit–XIV : Common Human Disease

Non communicable diseases – Diabetes & cardiac diseases. Communicable diseases like, amoebiasis, filariasis,

malaria (Mode of inflection- pathogens, prevention and treatment).

Unit – XV : Defence Mechanism of Body

Cells, Immune system and their function, immune deficiency in AIDS.

Unit – XVI : Wild life Conservation

Importance of wild life, Causes of extinction, threatened species – endangered, vulnerable and rare species,

conservation of wild life.